Abstract

Narrow-linewidth erbium-doped fiber lasers of monolithic multiple linear cavity configurations that use intracore fiber grating reflectors are demonstrated. Robust single-frequency operation of a miniature coupled-cavity fiber laser with a linewidth of 30 kHz is reported. A novel multiple-cavity erbium fiber laser with simultaneous dual single-frequency lasing is also demonstrated. A 16-kHz linewidth and a frequency separation of 59 GHz with a stability of better than 3 MHz were achieved in this dual-frequency laser.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 647 (1991).
  2. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 17, 420 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. W. Sulhoff, Electron. Lett. 28, 1385 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1338 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WA3.
  6. S. V. Chernikov, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 29, 1089 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).
  9. L. A. Coldren, B. I. Millar, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 315 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. J. Lang, A. Yariv, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 395 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. M. Dianov, O. G. Okhotnikov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 89 (1992).
  13. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. Mizrahi, D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, Y. Park, J. P. Delavaux, “Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communication,”J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

1993 (1)

R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).

1992 (4)

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. W. Sulhoff, Electron. Lett. 28, 1385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, O. G. Okhotnikov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 89 (1992).

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 17, 420 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 647 (1991).

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

R. J. Lang, A. Yariv, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 395 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Chernikov, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 29, 1089 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Millar, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

V. Mizrahi, D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, Y. Park, J. P. Delavaux, “Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communication,”J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 17, 420 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 647 (1991).

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WA3.

Chernikov, S. V.

S. V. Chernikov, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 29, 1089 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Millar, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).

Delavaux, J. P.

V. Mizrahi, D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, Y. Park, J. P. Delavaux, “Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communication,”J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, O. G. Okhotnikov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 89 (1992).

DiGiovanni, D.

V. Mizrahi, D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, Y. Park, J. P. Delavaux, “Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communication,”J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. W. Sulhoff, Electron. Lett. 28, 1385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ermitage, I. R.

R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 647 (1991).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Millar, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).

S. V. Chernikov, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 29, 1089 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R. J.

R. J. Lang, A. Yariv, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 395 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

McKee, P. F.

S. V. Chernikov, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 29, 1089 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Millar, B. I.

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Millar, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. W. Sulhoff, Electron. Lett. 28, 1385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, Y. Park, J. P. Delavaux, “Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communication,”J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 17, 420 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 647 (1991).

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WA3.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

E. M. Dianov, O. G. Okhotnikov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 89 (1992).

Olsson, N. A.

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

V. Mizrahi, D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, Y. Park, J. P. Delavaux, “Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communication,”J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Rentschler, J. A.

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Millar, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, J.

R. J. Lang, A. Yariv, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 395 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. W. Sulhoff, Electron. Lett. 28, 1385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

S. V. Chernikov, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 29, 1089 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. T.

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).

Wyatt, R.

R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).

Yariv, A.

R. J. Lang, A. Yariv, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 395 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. W. Sulhoff, Electron. Lett. 28, 1385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. A. Coldren, B. I. Millar, K. Iga, J. A. Rentschler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Tsang, N. A. Olsson, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 650 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

BT Technol. J. (1)

R. Kashyap, I. R. Ermitage, R. Wyatt, S. T. Davey, D. L. Williams, BT Technol. J. 11(2), 150 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. V. Chernikov, R. Kashyap, P. F. McKee, J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 29, 1089 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Zyskind, V. Mizrahi, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. W. Sulhoff, Electron. Lett. 28, 1385 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. J. Lang, A. Yariv, J. Salzman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 395 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 647 (1991).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sov. Lightwave Commun. (1)

E. M. Dianov, O. G. Okhotnikov, Sov. Lightwave Commun. 2, 89 (1992).

Other (2)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 5 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WA3.

V. Mizrahi, D. DiGiovanni, R. M. Atkins, Y. Park, J. P. Delavaux, “Stable single-mode erbium fiber-grating laser for digital communication,”J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of the laser with an external étalon reflector. The inset shows the laser spectrum (0.2 nm/division, resolution 0.1 nm). PC, polarization controller; FS’s, fusion splices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectrum of the single-frequency laser measured by a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer (finesse 1500) snowing one free spectral range (FSR) of the interferometer. (b) Spectrally dependent laser feedback determined as a product of the reflectivities of the laser end mirrors. Results of calculations are presented for the laser with (solid curve) and without (dashed curve) an external étalon. The lines show the laser mode position. The calculations were undertaken for the experimental laser geometry and parameters of grating reflectors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic configuration of the coupled dual-cavity laser. The inset shows a dual-frequency laser spectrum (0.2 nm/division, resolution 0.1 nm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of the dual-frequency laser measured by a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer, (a) One free spectral range (FSR) of the Fabry–Perot interferometer. The frequency separation of two lines in the spectrum is approximately three times the FSR of the interferometer, as calculated by [c(λBλA)/λ2] = 3 × FSR + δf. (b) A real-time photograph of the Fabry–Perot trace when two lines coincide in scan (δf = 0). The variation of frequency separation is not resolved.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Heterodyne measurements of the linewidths of the (a) coupled-cavity dual-frequency laser and (b) the single-frequency laser formed by one of the cavities of the coupled-cavity laser. The linewidth is defined as a half-width half-maximum, and the instrument resolution is 10 kHz, with 50 kHz/division.

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