Abstract

We report a low-threshold, high-conversion-efficiency erbium-doped fiber laser in a 100-parts-in-106 fiber pumped at 1.48 μm. The threshold and efficiency are found to deteriorate noticeably as the erbium concentration is increased. We propose that this is due mostly to rapid cross relaxation between ion pairs or clusters, and through modeling we show that the cluster content increases with concentration.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Barnes, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, Opt. Lett. 14, 1002 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Susuki, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1000 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Kimura, K. Susuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Lett. 14, 999 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, (1990).
  5. T. Georges, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 17 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WE4.
  6. P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1993).
  7. A. M. Vengsarkar, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. A. Reed, K. W. Quoi, K. L. Walker, Opt. Lett. 17, 1277 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).
  9. P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. Digonnet, B. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).
  10. J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).
  11. R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. W. Sadowski, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. H. Pantell, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 18, 927 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1993).
  15. E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (5)

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1993).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).

R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1993).

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Sadowski, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. H. Pantell, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 18, 927 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. Digonnet, B. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).

M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, (1990).

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

Barnes, W. L.

Bayon, J.-F.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blixt, P.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Carlnäs, T.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Georges, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 17 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WE4.

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).

A. M. Vengsarkar, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. A. Reed, K. W. Quoi, K. L. Walker, Opt. Lett. 17, 1277 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Digonnet, M. J.

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. Digonnet, B. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Digonnet, M. J. F.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).

R. W. Sadowski, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. H. Pantell, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 18, 927 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1993).

M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, (1990).

Georges, T.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Georges, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 17 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WE4.

Giles, C. R.

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kalman, R. F.

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. Digonnet, B. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Kim, B.

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. Digonnet, B. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Kimura, Y.

K. Susuki, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1000 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kimura, K. Susuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Lett. 14, 999 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamouler, P.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

Monerie, M.

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Georges, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 17 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WE4.

Morkel, P. R.

Nakazawa, M.

Y. Kimura, K. Susuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Lett. 14, 999 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Susuki, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1000 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

Payne, D. N.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1993).

Quoi, K. W.

Reed, W. A.

Reekie, L.

Sadowski, R. W.

Shaw, H. J.

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1993).

R. W. Sadowski, M. J. F. Digonnet, R. H. Pantell, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 18, 927 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).

Susuki, K.

K. Susuki, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1000 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kimura, K. Susuki, M. Nakazawa, Opt. Lett. 14, 999 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wagener, J. L.

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1993).

Walker, K. L.

Wyatt, R.

R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).

Wysocki, P. F.

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1993).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. Digonnet, B. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

Zyskind, J. L.

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnäs, B. Jaskorzynska, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Delevaque, T. Georges, M. Monerie, P. Lamouler, J.-F. Bayon, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. Desurvire, J. L. Zyskind, C. R. Giles, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1730 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Susuki, Y. Kimura, M. Nakazawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L1000 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (6)

P. F. Wysocki, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 66 (1993).

R. S. Quimby, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 50 (1993).

M. J. F. Digonnet, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, (1990).

P. F. Wysocki, R. F. Kalman, M. J. Digonnet, B. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1581, 40 (1991).

J. L. Wagener, P. F. Wysocki, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, D. J. DiGiovanni, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1789, 80 (1993).

R. Wyatt, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1171, 54 (1990).

Other (1)

T. Georges, E. Delevaque, M. Monerie, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 17 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper WE4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Forward output power of five EDFL’s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total conversion efficiency of the EDFL’s of Fig. 1 as a function of concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inferred percentage of paired ions as a function of concentration for the five test fibers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Fibers Tested as EDFL’s

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = 2 π σ 0 c ( r ) p 01 ( r ) r d r ,
W 01 = a ( 0 . 65 + 1 . 619 V 1 . 5 + 2 . 879 V 6 ) ,
α = σ W d 2 W d 2 + W 01 2 c m .

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