Abstract

We present a self-consistent design optimization for nonlinear antiresonant optical waveguides with quasi-phase-matched AlxGa1−xAs multilayer cores. Design parameters for efficient surface normal second-harmonic generation at green and blue wavelengths are obtained.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, C. T. Seaton, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, L. D. Hutcheson, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 9, p. 317.
  2. G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Normandin, S. Letourneau, F. Chatenoud, R. L. Williams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1520 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Vakhshoori, S. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 906 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See, for example, M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.
  10. S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.
  11. D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

See, for example, M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

R. Normandin, S. Letourneau, F. Chatenoud, R. L. Williams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Vakhshoori, S. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 906 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buchanan, M.

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

Burke, J. J.

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, C. T. Seaton, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, L. D. Hutcheson, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 9, p. 317.

Byer, R. L.

See, for example, M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chatenoud, F.

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Normandin, S. Letourneau, F. Chatenoud, R. L. Williams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

Cho, A. Y.

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chu, G. N. S.

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H.

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

Delage, A.

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

See, for example, M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, R. J.

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fukatsu, S.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

Hong, M.

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ito, R.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

Janz, S.

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

Jundt, D. H.

See, for example, M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kano, S. S.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

Kelso, S. M.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

Kumata, K.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

Letourneau, S.

R. Normandin, S. Letourneau, F. Chatenoud, R. L. Williams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

See, for example, M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, J.

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Normandin, R.

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Normandin, S. Letourneau, F. Chatenoud, R. L. Williams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

Sasaki, T.

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, C. T. Seaton, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, L. D. Hutcheson, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 9, p. 317.

Shiraki, Y.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

Sivco, D. L.

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Springthopre, A. J.

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, C. T. Seaton, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, L. D. Hutcheson, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 9, p. 317.

Stolen, R. H.

Vakhshoori, D.

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Vakhshoori, S. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 906 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vilks, E.

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

Wang, S.

D. Vakhshoori, S. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 906 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R.

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. L.

R. Normandin, S. Letourneau, F. Chatenoud, R. L. Williams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G. J.

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Vakhshoori, R. J. Fischer, M. Hong, D. L. Sivco, G. J. Zydzik, G. N. S. Chu, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 896 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Normandin, H. Dai, S. Janz, A. Delage, J. Brown, F. Chatenoud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 18 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

See, for example, M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Normandin, S. Letourneau, F. Chatenoud, R. L. Williams, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1520 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Dai, S. Janz, R. Normandin, J. Nielsen, F. Chatenoud, R. Williams, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 820 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, R. Bhat, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 754 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, T. Sasaki, K. Iga, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1440 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Vakhshoori, S. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 906 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Other (3)

G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, C. T. Seaton, in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components, L. D. Hutcheson, ed. (Dekker, New York, 1987), Chap. 9, p. 317.

M. Ohashi, T. Kondo, R. Ito, S. Fukatsu, Y. Shiraki, K. Kumata, S. S. Kano, in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals, and Applications, Vol. 18 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 63.

S. Janz, F. Chatenoud, H. Dai, E. Vilks, M. Buchanan, R. Normandin, A. J. Springthopre, in Semiconductor Heterostructures for Photonic and Electronic Applications, C. W. Tu, D. C. Houghton, R. T. Tung, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1993), p. 301.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multilayer NARROW structure used in the optimization analysis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the cross section as a function of duty cycle and Al fraction between layers in the NARROW core.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of SH light propagating toward the waveguide surface (thick solid curve) and the fundamental TE0 mode (dotted curve) and the refractive-index profile (thin solid curve) for the NARROW with (a) 0.5 and (b) 0.25 duty cycles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Predicted SH power from an 8-μm-wide × 2-mm-long NARROW. Shown are the unoptimized NARROW for 0.532-μm emission [curve (a)], the optimized NARROW for 0.532-μm emission [curve (b)], and the optimized guide for 0.46-μm emission [curve (c)].

Equations (2)

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S av = 1 2 ω 2 ( μ 0 0 ) 1 / 2 ( n 2 ω n 2 ω + 1 ) 2 S S * y ˆ ,
S = 0 P nl ( y ) n ( y ) { exp [ i k 0 y 0 n ( y ) d y ] } d y ,

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