Abstract

An electron-holographic interference microscope that produces a time-sequential interference micrograph at a TV rate is developed. In this system, the electron off-axis hologram detected with a TV camera is transferred to a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator as a video signal. The liquid-crystal spatial light modulator can function as a thin amplitude hologram or a thin phase hologram. Time-sequential interference micrograph is obtained at a TV rate by superimposition of a plane reference wave onto the reconstructed object wave. Experimental results for observing a dynamic domain-wall motion in thin Permalloy film are demonstrated.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Möllenstedt, H. Düker, Z. Phys. 145, 377 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2372 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. D. Rau, H. Lichte, E. Völkl, U. Weierstall, J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. 3, 51 (1991).
  8. N. Konforti, E. Marom, S. T. Wu, Opt. Lett. 13, 251 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. H. Barnes, T. Eiju, K. Matsuda, N. Ooyama, Appl. Opt. 28, 4845 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. H. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, Opt. Eng. 29, 240 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Amako, T. Sonehara, Appl. Opt. 30, 4622 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1461, 291 (1991).
  13. J. Chen, G. M. Lai, K. Ishizuka, A. Tonomura, “Method of compensating for aberrations in electron holography with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

1991 (4)

Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Rau, H. Lichte, E. Völkl, U. Weierstall, J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. 3, 51 (1991).

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1461, 291 (1991).

J. Amako, T. Sonehara, Appl. Opt. 30, 4622 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. H. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, Opt. Eng. 29, 240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. S. Cohen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4966 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

G. Möllenstedt, H. Düker, Z. Phys. 145, 377 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Amako, J.

Arii, T.

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, T. H.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, G. M. Lai, K. Ishizuka, A. Tonomura, “Method of compensating for aberrations in electron holography with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Cohen, M. S.

M. S. Cohen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4966 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Düker, H.

G. Möllenstedt, H. Düker, Z. Phys. 145, 377 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

Endo, J.

Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fukuhara, A.

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, N.

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1461, 291 (1991).

Ishizuka, K.

J. Chen, G. M. Lai, K. Ishizuka, A. Tonomura, “Method of compensating for aberrations in electron holography with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Kawasaki, T.

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, K.

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1461, 291 (1991).

Konforti, N.

Lai, G. M.

J. Chen, G. M. Lai, K. Ishizuka, A. Tonomura, “Method of compensating for aberrations in electron holography with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Lichte, H.

W. D. Rau, H. Lichte, E. Völkl, U. Weierstall, J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. 3, 51 (1991).

Lu, K. H.

K. H. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, Opt. Eng. 29, 240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Matsuda, K.

Matsuda, T.

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mihama, K.

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Möllenstedt, G.

G. Möllenstedt, H. Düker, Z. Phys. 145, 377 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Morokawa, S.

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1461, 291 (1991).

Ooyama, N.

Osakabe, N.

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rau, W. D.

W. D. Rau, H. Lichte, E. Völkl, U. Weierstall, J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. 3, 51 (1991).

Ru, Q.

Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

K. H. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, Opt. Eng. 29, 240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shinagawa, K.

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sonehara, T.

Tanabe, H.

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, T.

Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tonomura, A.

Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, G. M. Lai, K. Ishizuka, A. Tonomura, “Method of compensating for aberrations in electron holography with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Völkl, E.

W. D. Rau, H. Lichte, E. Völkl, U. Weierstall, J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. 3, 51 (1991).

Weierstall, U.

W. D. Rau, H. Lichte, E. Völkl, U. Weierstall, J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. 3, 51 (1991).

Wu, S. T.

Yamada, H.

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yano, S.

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Ru, J. Endo, T. Tanji, A. Tonomura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2372 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. S. Cohen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4966 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. (1)

W. D. Rau, H. Lichte, E. Völkl, U. Weierstall, J. Comput. Assist. Microsc. 3, 51 (1991).

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. H. Lu, B. E. A. Saleh, Opt. Eng. 29, 240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, H. Tanabe, N. Osakabe, J. Endo, A. Fukuhara, K. Shinagawa, H. Fujiwara, Phys. Rev. B 25, 5799 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Tonomura, T. Matsuda, J. Endo, T. Arii, K. Mihama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Tonomura, N. Osakabe, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, J. Endo, S. Yano, H. Yamada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 792 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

N. Hashimoto, S. Morokawa, K. Kitamura, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1461, 291 (1991).

Z. Phys. (1)

G. Möllenstedt, H. Düker, Z. Phys. 145, 377 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Chen, G. M. Lai, K. Ishizuka, A. Tonomura, “Method of compensating for aberrations in electron holography with a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,”Appl. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the real-time electron-holographic interference microscope system. M’s, mirrors; HM’s, half mirrors; VTR, videotape recorder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Electron hologram of thin Permalloy film, (b) interference micrograph obtained at a TV rate, (c) two-time phase-amplified interference micrograph obtained by use of two conjugate reconstructed waves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two of the time-sequential interference micrograph frames for observing the dynamic domain-wall motion in thin Permalloy film: (a) the initial state, (b) with a 40-G applied magnetic field.

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