Abstract

Optical switching and optical bistability and multistability are observed experimentally with a nonlinear periodic structure. The periodic dielectric is a colloidal crystal that exhibits a large electrostrictive nonlinearity. The transmission characteristics of these crystals as a function of incident intensity are presented for several different frequencies of light within the stopgap of the periodic structures.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2285 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. D. Sankey, T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Herbert, W. S. Capinski, M. S. Malcuit, Opt. Lett. 17, 1037 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Yoshiyana, I. Solgami, N. Ise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2153 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. St. J. Russell, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1599 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. L. Adler, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 91, 354 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Ise, H. Matsuoka, K. Ito, H. Ypshida, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 90, 153 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (3)

N. D. Sankey, T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Herbert, W. S. Capinski, M. S. Malcuit, Opt. Lett. 17, 1037 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Adler, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 91, 354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. St. J. Russell, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

N. Ise, H. Matsuoka, K. Ito, H. Ypshida, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 90, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

T. Yoshiyana, I. Solgami, N. Ise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2153 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adler, C. L.

C. L. Adler, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 91, 354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bambakidis, G.

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

N. D. Sankey, T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Capinski, W. S.

Carman, R. L.

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Sterke, C. M.

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, S.

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gohman, P. A.

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Herbert, C. J.

Ise, N.

N. Ise, H. Matsuoka, K. Ito, H. Ypshida, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 90, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshiyana, I. Solgami, N. Ise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2153 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

N. Ise, H. Matsuoka, K. Ito, H. Ypshida, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 90, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

C. L. Adler, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 91, 354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Malcuit, M. S.

Marburger, J. H.

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, H.

N. Ise, H. Matsuoka, K. Ito, H. Ypshida, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 90, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. L.

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moran, M. J.

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sankey, N. D.

N. D. Sankey, T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
[CrossRef]

She, C. Y.

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solgami, I.

T. Yoshiyana, I. Solgami, N. Ise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2153 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Spry, R. J.

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H. G.

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yoshiyana, T.

T. Yoshiyana, I. Solgami, N. Ise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2153 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ypshida, H.

N. Ise, H. Matsuoka, K. Ito, H. Ypshida, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 90, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zamir, R.

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2285 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Winful, R. Zamir, S. Feldman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Sankey, T. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1427 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. (1)

N. Ise, H. Matsuoka, K. Ito, H. Ypshida, Faraday Discuss. Chem. Soc. 90, 153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. Moran, C. Y. She, R. L. Carman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 259 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. A. Gohman, G. Bambakidis, R. J. Spry, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 40 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. St. J. Russell, J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. L. Adler, N. M. Lawandy, Opt. Commun. 91, 354 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. M. de Sterke, J. E. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 42, 2858 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. Yoshiyana, I. Solgami, N. Ise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2153 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 160 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Solutions of the coupled amplitude equations for a nonlinear periodic dielectric structure, where κL = 4.0. The transmitted intensity (Iout) is plotted versus the incident intensity (Iin) for three different detunings. (a) Simple switching for ΔβL = −4.3, (b) bistability for ΔβL = −2.0, (c) multistability for ΔβL = 2.0. The solid curves indicate where the transmission is stable, and the dashed curves indicate unstable solutions for the transmission. The arrows indicate where switching between transmitting states occurs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission of a colloidal crystal plotted as a function of wavelength (solid curve). The arrows indicate the wavelengths of the incident light at which the transmission plots in Fig. 3 were obtained. The dashed curve shows the calculated transmission of a periodic structure with κL = 4.0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmitted intensity plotted as a function of incident intensity for four different wavelengths. The arrows indicate where the transmission switched between different transmitting states.

Equations (1)

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n ( z ) = n 0 + n 1 cos ( 2 β 0 z ) + n 2 | E | 2 ,

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