Abstract

We applied a simple, sensitive differential absorption technique to measure the two-photon cross section for the 52S1/2(Fg = 2) → 52D5/2(F = 4) hyperfine transition in 85Rb [σ(2) = (1.2 ± 0.5) × 10−18 cm4/W]. The detection circuit permitted straightforward measurements close to the shot-noise limit. Detailed quantitative analysis of the measurements shows excellent agreement with theory.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. L. Haller, P. C. D. Hobbs, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1435, B5 (1991); P. C. D. Hobbs, Opt. Photon. News 2(4), 17 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 355.
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Zapka, M. D. Levenson, F. M. Schellenberg, A. C. Tam, G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 8, 27 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, J. Phys. B 14, L819 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Ryan, L. Westling, H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 1112 (1992); Y. Kato, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 490 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Marek, P. Munster, J. Phys. B 13, 1731 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. von der Goltz, W. Hansen, J. Richter, Phys. Scr. 30, 244 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Tai, W. Happer, R. Gupta, Phys. Rev. A 12, 736 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Grynberg, F. Biraben, E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 38, 629 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Ryan, L. Westling, H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 1112 (1992); Y. Kato, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 490 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. L. Haller, P. C. D. Hobbs, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1435, B5 (1991); P. C. D. Hobbs, Opt. Photon. News 2(4), 17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. von der Goltz, W. Hansen, J. Richter, Phys. Scr. 30, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, J. Phys. B 14, L819 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. Marek, P. Munster, J. Phys. B 13, 1731 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Grynberg, F. Biraben, E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 38, 629 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

C. Tai, W. Happer, R. Gupta, Phys. Rev. A 12, 736 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

G. Grynberg, F. Biraben, E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 38, 629 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bloch, D.

D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, J. Phys. B 14, L819 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cagnac, B.

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Grynberg, F. Biraben, E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 38, 629 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. H.

J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 355.
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, J. Phys. B 14, L819 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Giacobino, E.

D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, J. Phys. B 14, L819 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Grynberg, F. Biraben, E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 38, 629 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

G. Grynberg, F. Biraben, E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 38, 629 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

C. Tai, W. Happer, R. Gupta, Phys. Rev. A 12, 736 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haller, K. L.

K. L. Haller, P. C. D. Hobbs, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1435, B5 (1991); P. C. D. Hobbs, Opt. Photon. News 2(4), 17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, W.

D. von der Goltz, W. Hansen, J. Richter, Phys. Scr. 30, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

C. Tai, W. Happer, R. Gupta, Phys. Rev. A 12, 736 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. C. D.

K. L. Haller, P. C. D. Hobbs, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1435, B5 (1991); P. C. D. Hobbs, Opt. Photon. News 2(4), 17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

Marek, J.

J. Marek, P. Munster, J. Phys. B 13, 1731 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

R. Ryan, L. Westling, H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 1112 (1992); Y. Kato, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 490 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Munster, P.

J. Marek, P. Munster, J. Phys. B 13, 1731 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, J. P.

J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 355.
[CrossRef]

Richter, J.

D. von der Goltz, W. Hansen, J. Richter, Phys. Scr. 30, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, R.

R. Ryan, L. Westling, H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 1112 (1992); Y. Kato, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 490 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schellenberg, F. M.

Tai, C.

C. Tai, W. Happer, R. Gupta, Phys. Rev. A 12, 736 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

von der Goltz, D.

D. von der Goltz, W. Hansen, J. Richter, Phys. Scr. 30, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Westling, L.

R. Ryan, L. Westling, H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 1112 (1992); Y. Kato, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 490 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zapka, W.

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

R. Ryan, L. Westling, H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 1112 (1992); Y. Kato, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 490 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

G. Grynberg, F. Biraben, E. Giacobino, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 38, 629 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

D. Bloch, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, J. Phys. B 14, L819 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Marek, P. Munster, J. Phys. B 13, 1731 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Tai, W. Happer, R. Gupta, Phys. Rev. A 12, 736 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

D. von der Goltz, W. Hansen, J. Richter, Phys. Scr. 30, 244 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

K. L. Haller, P. C. D. Hobbs, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1435, B5 (1991); P. C. D. Hobbs, Opt. Photon. News 2(4), 17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. Grynberg, B. Cagnac, Rep. Prog. Phys. 40, 791 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), p. 355.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Light from a laser is split into reference and sample beams. The sample beam experiences absorption by atoms; a noise-canceling circuit takes the ratio of the sample and reference beam photo-diode signals to reduce noise from laser amplitude fluctuations. The two-photon resonance is initially found by detecting the fluorescence produced by the 62P3/2 → 52S1/2 transition at 420.2 nm. The fluorescence is detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raw data showing the DAS absorption versus two-photon frequency as the laser is swept through the five hyperfine transitions out of the 52S1/2(Fg = 2) ground state of 85Rb. Also plotted are the fitted curve and the locations and relative strengths of the five allowed hyperfine transitions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of S(2) for the 52S1/2 → 52D5/2 Transition in Rubidium

Equations (9)

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V = G ln ( r 0 e α 1 ) ,
β 2 = F e 0 α 2 F e ( 2 ω ) 2 d ω ,
P F g F e ( 2 ω ) = [ π Γ e 4 ћ ω σ F g F e ( 2 ) ( 2 ω ) ] I + I ,
R F g F e ( 2 ω ) = [ π Γ e 4 ћ ω σ F g F e ( 2 ) ( 2 ω ) ] n I + I d V ,
α F g F e ( 2 ω ) = ( P + + P ) 2 P + P ћ ω R F g F e ( 2 ω ) ,
n I + I d V = n P + A w P A w L eff A w ,
P g e ( ω g e ) = F g , F e P F g F e ( ω g e ) = S ( 2 ) I + I F ( ˆ , ˆ + ) ,
S ( 2 ) = 144 π 2 f g i f i e c 2 r e 2 ћ 2 ( ω ω g i ) 2 ω g i ω i e Γ e ,
S ( 2 ) = 12 5 A w β 2 n ( P + + P ) L eff F ћ ω ( 2 π Γ e ) ,

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