Abstract

We have constructed and demonstrated a single-pixel implementation of an all-optical membrane-based spatial light modulator as a compact optical wave-front error correction device. High rates of response of as much as 20 kHz in an open-loop configuration were obtained. The device was then used in an adaptive-optics servo to compensate successfully for a 1-kHz sinusoidal phase error with a peak-to-peak excursion of approximately π/7 rad. A small-signal servo gain of the order of 10 was inferred from the closed-loop measurements.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Warde, A. D. Fisher, in Optical Signal Processing, J. L. Horner, ed. (Academic, New York, 1987), p. 477.
  2. C. Warde, C. M. Schiller, J. Bounds, T. N. Horsky, G. Melnik, R. Dillon, Appl. Opt. 31, 3971 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. N. Horsky, C. M. Schiller, G. J. Genetti, T. N. Tsakiris, D. M. O’Mara, R. Jurgilewicz, S. Lee, C. Warde, Appl. Opt. 31, 3980 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).
  5. M. A. Ealey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 2 (1991).
  6. C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).
  7. P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.
  8. K. Preston, Coherent Optical Computers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972).
  9. E. Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1972), pp. 449–452.
  10. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).
  11. A. D. Fisher, C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 4, 131 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

M. A. Ealey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 2 (1991).

1989 (1)

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

Bounds, J.

Brown, W. P.

C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

Dillon, R.

Ealey, M. A.

M. A. Ealey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 2 (1991).

Efron, U.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Fisher, A. D.

A. D. Fisher, C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 4, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Warde, A. D. Fisher, in Optical Signal Processing, J. L. Horner, ed. (Academic, New York, 1987), p. 477.

Gaeta, C. J.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Genetti, G. J.

Horsky, T. N.

T. N. Horsky, C. M. Schiller, G. J. Genetti, T. N. Tsakiris, D. M. O’Mara, R. Jurgilewicz, S. Lee, C. Warde, Appl. Opt. 31, 3980 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Warde, C. M. Schiller, J. Bounds, T. N. Horsky, G. Melnik, R. Dillon, Appl. Opt. 31, 3971 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

Jurgilewicz, R.

Katulin, V. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kreyszig, E.

E. Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1972), pp. 449–452.

Lee, S.

Lind, R. C.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Melnik, G.

Minden, M. L.

C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Mitchell, P. V.

C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

Naumov, A. F.

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O’Mara, D. M.

O’Meara, T. R.

C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

Pepper, D. M.

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

Preston, K.

K. Preston, Coherent Optical Computers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972).

Schiller, C. M.

C. Warde, C. M. Schiller, J. Bounds, T. N. Horsky, G. Melnik, R. Dillon, Appl. Opt. 31, 3971 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Horsky, C. M. Schiller, G. J. Genetti, T. N. Tsakiris, D. M. O’Mara, R. Jurgilewicz, S. Lee, C. Warde, Appl. Opt. 31, 3980 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

Tsakiris, T. N.

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).

Vorontsov, M. A.

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

C. Warde, C. M. Schiller, J. Bounds, T. N. Horsky, G. Melnik, R. Dillon, Appl. Opt. 31, 3971 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Horsky, C. M. Schiller, G. J. Genetti, T. N. Tsakiris, D. M. O’Mara, R. Jurgilewicz, S. Lee, C. Warde, Appl. Opt. 31, 3980 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Fisher, C. Warde, Opt. Lett. 4, 131 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

C. Warde, A. D. Fisher, in Optical Signal Processing, J. L. Horner, ed. (Academic, New York, 1987), p. 477.

White, J. O.

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. A. Vorontsov, V. A. Katulin, A. F. Naumov, Opt. Commun. 71, 35 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. A. Ealey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1543, 2 (1991).

Other (8)

C. J. Gaeta, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, M. L. Minden, P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, “Characteristics of innovative adaptive-optics servos employing membrane-based spatial light modulators,”J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (to be published).

P. V. Mitchell, C. J. Gaeta, J. O. White, T. R. O’Meara, W. P. Brown, D. M. Pepper, C. M. Schiller, T. N. Horsky, C. Warde, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB2.

K. Preston, Coherent Optical Computers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972).

E. Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1972), pp. 449–452.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

C. Warde, A. D. Fisher, in Optical Signal Processing, J. L. Horner, ed. (Academic, New York, 1987), p. 477.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1991).

P. V. Mitchell, D. M. Pepper, R. C. Lind, C. J. Gaeta, W. P. Brown, T. R. O’Meara, U. Efron, in Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes, Vol. 19 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper AThB3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of a single-pixel, directly driven membrane spatial light modulator that uses a charge-transfer plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration for the membrane-based adaptive-optics servo. A fixed bias voltage is summed with the. detected error signal voltage to derive the correction Voltage applied to the membrane device: BS, beam splitter; L, lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Membrane response in the form of a phase shift imparted to an optical field reflected from the membrane surface as a function of voltage applied to the membrane. The triangular drive voltage wave form is included for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Open-loop and closed-loop results for a π/7-rad peak-to-peak sinusoidal input error varying at 1 kHz applied to the optical servo.

Equations (1)

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ω n 2 = 5 . 78 T / ρ R 2

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