Abstract

Self-induced phase modulation in erbium-doped polycrystalline Y2O3 integrated-optic waveguides is studied by use of a Mach–Zehnder interferometric setup. We determined the wavelength dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index near the 4F9/2 absorption band and show that it corresponds qualitatively with a Kramers–Krönig analysis. The nonlinear coefficient at 670 nm was determined to be 1.4 × 10−14 m2/W and has an electronic origin with a slow relaxation time of 6 ms.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, P. N. Yocom, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 595 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Desuivre, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1517 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 7.
  10. T. H. Hoekstra, P. V. Lambeck, H. Albers, Th. J. Popma, Electron. Lett. 29, 581 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Thakur, D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1213 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. H. Hoekstra, P. V. Lambeck, H. Albers, Th. J. Popma, Electron. Lett. 29, 581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

E. Desuivre, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Thakur, D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1213 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, P. N. Yocom, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Albers, H.

T. H. Hoekstra, P. V. Lambeck, H. Albers, Th. J. Popma, Electron. Lett. 29, 581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Betts, R. A.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Desuivre, E.

E. Desuivre, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, T. H.

T. H. Hoekstra, P. V. Lambeck, H. Albers, Th. J. Popma, Electron. Lett. 29, 581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

M. Thakur, D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1213 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kushida, T.

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ladany, I.

J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, P. N. Yocom, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

T. H. Hoekstra, P. V. Lambeck, H. Albers, Th. J. Popma, Electron. Lett. 29, 581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Olbright, G. R.

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Popma, Th. J.

T. H. Hoekstra, P. V. Lambeck, H. Albers, Th. J. Popma, Electron. Lett. 29, 581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shionoya, S.

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 7.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M.

M. Thakur, D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1213 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tjugiarto, T.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wittke, J. P.

J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, P. N. Yocom, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Y. L.

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yocom, P. N.

J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, P. N. Yocom, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1184 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Thakur, D. M. Krol, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1213 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. H. Hoekstra, P. V. Lambeck, H. Albers, Th. J. Popma, Electron. Lett. 29, 581 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Betts, T. Tjugiarto, Y. L. Xue, P. L. Chu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 908 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Wittke, I. Ladany, P. N. Yocom, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. Desuivre, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, T. Kushida, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. C. Hutchings, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. J. Weber, Phys. Rev. 171, 283 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured erbium absorption spectrum αEr(λp) and the calculated maximum refractive-index change of an Er:Y2O3 (0.34 at. % Er) waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mach–Zehnder interferometer setup for measuring self-induced phase changes of integrated-optical waveguides.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fringes for powers of 16 mW (top) and 36 mW (bottom) at 670 nm. Dotted curves, measured fringes; solid curves, calculated fringes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured dispersion of the nonlinear coefficient (points) and the calculated dispersion of the refractive-index change (dashed curve).

Equations (1)

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Δ n ( I , ω ) = c π P . V . 0 Δ α ( I , ω ) ω 2 ω 2 d ω ,

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