Abstract

We derive a far-field diffraction integral by (vector) electromagnetic theory; the result differs from the (scalar) Rayleigh–Sommerfeld or Kirchhoff result in that it depends on polarization. For unpolarized light, we derive a factor (1+cos2θ)1/2/2 that replaces the usual obliquity factor. Omitting this factor can cause an error of the same order as the measurement uncertainty in determining the mode-field diameter of a single-mode fiber from far-field data.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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