Abstract

Three-dimensional images of an object hidden in a thick highly scattering medium were reconstructed from sets of two-dimensional images obtained from a time-gated optical imaging system. CCD images were combined by use of the backprojection algorithm to render a three-dimensional picture on a personal computer monitor. The image quality varied with the delay of the Kerr gate system. When the reconstructions were produced by using the early light, submillimeter resolution was achieved with the optical time-gating tomographic technique.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2162 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dillworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, Opt. Lett. 16, 487 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, Nature (London) 351, 378 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 15, 320 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).
  9. M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. Tankerskey, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 16, 1868 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York, N.Y. 10031 (personal communication, 1993).
  11. K. Iizuka, Engineering Optics, Vol. 35 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 295–297.

1993 (1)

1991 (5)

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dillworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, Opt. Lett. 16, 487 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. Tankerskey, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 16, 1868 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, Nature (London) 351, 378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

1990 (2)

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 15, 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Abramson, N. H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 18, 241 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 15, 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York, N.Y. 10031 (personal communication, 1993).

Chance, B.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Dai, H.

Dillworth, D.

Duguay, M. A.

Duncan, M.

Feinberg, J.

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, Nature (London) 351, 378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.

L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

Iizuka, K.

K. Iizuka, Engineering Optics, Vol. 35 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 295–297.

Leith, E.

Liang, X.

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York, N.Y. 10031 (personal communication, 1993).

Lopez, J.

Mahon, R.

Mattick, A. T.

Rebane, A.

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, Nature (London) 351, 378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reintjes, J.

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sevick, E. M.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

Spears, K. G.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tankerskey, L.

Valdmanis, J.

Wang, L.

Yoo, K. M.

K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 15, 320 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York, N.Y. 10031 (personal communication, 1993).

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Rebane, J. Feinberg, Nature (London) 351, 378 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1431, 84 (1991).

Science (1)

L. Wang, P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

F. Liu, K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, Department of Physics, City College of New York, New York, N.Y. 10031 (personal communication, 1993).

K. Iizuka, Engineering Optics, Vol. 35 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), pp. 295–297.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the time-gated 4F Fourier optical tomographic imaging system. ML, mode-locked laser pulse train; BS, beam splitter; KDP, potassium dihydrate phosphate crystal for second-harmonic generation; DL, delay line; turbid media cell size: 5.5 cm × 5.5 cm × 5 cm; L’s, lenses; P, polarizer; A, analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conceptual view of the backprojection method: (a) phantom illuminated from two perpendicular directions, (b) reconstruction of object by backprojection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional projections at varying delay times, (a) T = 3 ps, θ = 0 deg; (b) T = 3 ps, θ = 90 deg; (c) T = 10 ps, θ = 0 deg; (d) T = 10 ps, θ = 90 deg.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three-dimensional reconstructions from two-dimensional projections, (a) 3-ps delay, view angle θ = 17°, ϕ = 17°; (b) 3-ps delay, view angle θ = 51°, ϕ = 34°; (c) 10-ps delay, view angle θ = 17°, ϕ = 17°; (d) 10-ps delay, view angle θ = 51°, ϕ = 34°.

Equations (3)

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I snake exp ( b L l t ) ,
f tot ( i , j , k ) = n = 1 2 f n ( i , j , k ) .
f n ( i , j , k ) = i , j 18 , 18 k = 1 18 w n ( i , j ) ,

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