Abstract

Two-dimensional imaging of OH radicals in a premixed CH4/O2 flame by polarization spectroscopy is reported. Polarization spectroscopy was applied in a copropagating geometry with linearly polarized pump and probe beams. The images were measured with the laser frequency tuned to resonance with the Q1(9) A2Σ−X2Π(0, 0) transition of OH. The signal dependence on the crossing angle between the pump and probe beams was also studied. The possibilities for two-dimensional temperature mapping were demonstrated by measuring images at two different rotational lines and by extracting the temperature map from these measurements.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. K. Hanson, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 1677.
  2. P. Ewart, S. V. O'Leary, Opt. Lett. 11, 279 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Dreier, D. J. Rakestraw, Appl. Phys. B 50, 479 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Ewart, P. Snowdon, I. Magnusson, Opt. Lett. 14, 563 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. J. Rakestraw, R. L. Farrow, T. Dreier, Opt. Lett. 15, 709 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Ewart, M. Kaczmarek, Appl. Opt. 30, 3996 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Wieman, T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).
  9. W. G. Tong, E. S. Yeung, Anal. Chem. 57, 70 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Zizak, J. Lanauze, J. D. Winefordner, Appl. Opt. 25, 3242 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, K. Nyholm, presented at The First European Conference on Quantum Electronics, Hannover, Germany, Sept 12–15, 1988, paper MoCD4.
  12. K. Nyholm, R. Maier, C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, Appl. Opt. 32, 919 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1986 (2)

1985 (1)

W. G. Tong, E. S. Yeung, Anal. Chem. 57, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).

1976 (1)

C. Wieman, T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aminoff, C. G.

K. Nyholm, R. Maier, C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, Appl. Opt. 32, 919 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, K. Nyholm, presented at The First European Conference on Quantum Electronics, Hannover, Germany, Sept 12–15, 1988, paper MoCD4.

Carlson, N.

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).

Crosswhite, H. M.

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Dreier, T.

Ewart, P.

Farrow, R. L.

Hänsch, T. W.

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).

Hansen, T. W.

C. Wieman, T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

R. K. Hanson, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 1677.

Hill, W. T.

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).

Kaczmarek, M.

Kaivola, M.

K. Nyholm, R. Maier, C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, Appl. Opt. 32, 919 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, K. Nyholm, presented at The First European Conference on Quantum Electronics, Hannover, Germany, Sept 12–15, 1988, paper MoCD4.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).

Lanauze, J.

Magnusson, I.

Maier, R.

Nyholm, K.

K. Nyholm, R. Maier, C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, Appl. Opt. 32, 919 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, K. Nyholm, presented at The First European Conference on Quantum Electronics, Hannover, Germany, Sept 12–15, 1988, paper MoCD4.

O'Leary, S. V.

Rakestraw, D. J.

Snowdon, P.

Teets, R. E.

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).

Tong, W. G.

W. G. Tong, E. S. Yeung, Anal. Chem. 57, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

C. Wieman, T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

Yeung, E. S.

W. G. Tong, E. S. Yeung, Anal. Chem. 57, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zizak, G.

Anal. Chem. (1)

W. G. Tong, E. S. Yeung, Anal. Chem. 57, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Dreier, D. J. Rakestraw, Appl. Phys. B 50, 479 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Wieman, T. W. Hansen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1170 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. E. Teets, F. V. Kowalski, W. T. Hill, N. Carlson, T. W. Hänsch, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 113, 80 (1977).

Other (2)

R. K. Hanson, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 1677.

C. G. Aminoff, M. Kaivola, K. Nyholm, presented at The First European Conference on Quantum Electronics, Hannover, Germany, Sept 12–15, 1988, paper MoCD4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used in the 2D measurements of OH radicals in a CH4/O2 flame by use of polarization spectroscopy. SHG, second-harmonic generation; ND, neutral density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured single-pulse 2D images of OH in a CH4/O2 flame with a beam crossing angle of 15°. a, ϕ = 0.5 and the maximum signal is 8000 counts; b, pure diffusion flame, with a maximum signal of 600 counts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured single-pulse 2D images of OH in a CH4/O2 flame with a beam crossing angle of 30°. a, ϕ = 0.5 and the maximum signal is 3000 counts; b, ϕ ≈ 2 and the maximum signal is 600 counts.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured signal as a function of the beam crossing angle. Filled squares are measured data points, and the solid curve is a theoretical (cot θ)2 curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated 2D temperature map.

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