Abstract

Planar buried waveguides made by a purely thermal two-step K+ –Na+ ion exchange in soda-lime glass substrates have been investigated. Both diluted and nondiluted NaNO3 melts were used in the backdiffusion. A dramatic improvement of loss characteristics of buried waveguides has been obtained with diluted NaNO3 with different molar fractions of KNO3.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, Opt. Lett. 15, 212 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Brandenburg, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1580 (1992).
  4. P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 549 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kishioka, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1583, 19 (1991).
  6. M. Young, Optics and Lasers, 3rd revised ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 9, p. 201.
  7. H. P. Weber, F. A. Dunn, W. N. Leibolt, Appl. Opt. 12, 755 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

A. Brandenburg, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1580 (1992).

1991 (2)

P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 549 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishioka, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1583, 19 (1991).

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Albert, J.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1580 (1992).

Dunn, F. A.

Kishioka, K.

K. Kishioka, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1583, 19 (1991).

Leibolt, W. N.

Noutsios, P. C.

P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 549 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, Opt. Lett. 15, 212 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

Yip, G. L.

P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 549 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, Opt. Lett. 15, 212 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Young, M.

M. Young, Optics and Lasers, 3rd revised ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 9, p. 201.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. C. Noutsios, G. L. Yip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 549 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Brandenburg, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1580 (1992).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

K. Kishioka, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1583, 19 (1991).

Other (1)

M. Young, Optics and Lasers, 3rd revised ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), Chap. 9, p. 201.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffusion profiles of surface waveguides with numerical modeling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffusion profiles of buried waveguides with numerical modeling: (a) MF = 0.1, (b) MF = 0.2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shifted Rayleigh profile fitted to the numerical simulation of diffusion equation. MF = 0.1, t1 = 4 h, t2 = 45 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical dispersion curves and measured effective indices: (a) MF = 0.1, (b) MF = 0.2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Propagation losses.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting Parameters A, β, and x0 Related to Backdiffusion Time t2 and MF

Tables Icon

Table 2 Atomic Weight Fraction Concentrations of a Soda-Lime Bulk, a Surface Waveguide, and Two Different Buried Waveguides

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x ( D K 1 α ^ c c x ) = c t , α ^ = c s ( 1 D K D Na ) , c = c K c 0 c s ,
f ( x ) = A ( x + x 0 ) exp [ β ( x + x 0 ) 2 ] ,
h S = K surf K bulk Na bulk ,
h B = K bur K bulk K bur + Na bur K bulk ,

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