Abstract

The relationship between methane concentration and second-harmonic output of a particular optical methane-detection system is derived. The system uses a broadband source and a comb filter with its transmission peaks matched to the R-branch absorption lines of methane. An optimal modulation index is obtained, and a noise-limited detection resolution of 0.02% lower explosive level (3-s time constant) is estimated.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Uehara, H. Tai, Appl. Opt. 31, 809 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261 (1987).
  4. B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Vaughan, The Fabry–Perot Interferometer (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1989), App. 6, p. 471.

1992 (2)

K. Uehara, H. Tai, Appl. Opt. 31, 809 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261 (1987).

Aizawa, M.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cassidy, S.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, I.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261 (1987).

Ewyk, R. V.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, A.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McGhee, A.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Muhammad, F.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Murray, S.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, H.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Norris, J.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pinchbeck, D.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261 (1987).

Shimose, Y.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tai, H.

Uehara, K.

Vaughan, J. M.

J. M. Vaughan, The Fabry–Perot Interferometer (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1989), App. 6, p. 471.

Wade, C. A.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261 (1987).

Wilkinson, M.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wykes, J. S.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261 (1987).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Culshaw, F. Muhammad, G. Stewart, S. Murray, D. Pinchbeck, J. Norris, S. Cassidy, M. Wilkinson, D. Williams, I. Crisp, R. V. Ewyk, A. McGhee, Electron. Lett. 28, 2232 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Sensors (1)

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261 (1987).

Other (1)

J. M. Vaughan, The Fabry–Perot Interferometer (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1989), App. 6, p. 471.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: D, detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2-kHz signal versus methane concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

2-kHz signal versus amplitude of the cavity modulation: symbols, experimental results; curve, theoretical fit.

Equations (7)

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I min I 0 ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) - C i I i .
I ( d ) = I 0 ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) - C i I i / [ 1 + F sin 2 ( ϕ i + X i sin ω t ) ] ,
I dc = ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) [ I 0 - C i I i - 2 C i I i m = 1 R m J 0 ( 2 m X i ) cos 2 m ϕ i ] ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) I 0 ,
I ω = 4 C ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) × i I i m = 1 R m J 1 ( 2 m X i ) sin 2 m ϕ i ,
I 2 ω = - 4 C ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) × i I i m = 1 R m J 2 ( 2 m X i ) cos 2 m ϕ i .
I ω = 4 C ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) × m - 1 R m J 1 ( 2 m X ) i I i sin 2 m ϕ i ,
I 2 ω = - 4 C ( 1 - R ) / ( 1 + R ) × m = 1 R m J 2 ( 2 m X ) i I i cos 2 m ϕ i .

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