Abstract

A new photoelastic light modulator is demonstrated based on the modulation of the birefringence and of the index profile in graded-index lenses. Using the birefringence modulation, we obtained a 35% modulation depth in a quarter-pitch lens and a 65% modulation depth in a half-pitch lens at acoustic frequencies up to the megahertz range. Using the index profile modulation in a half-pitch lens as a fiber-to-fiber connector, we obtained 15% modulation without the incorporation of a polarizer.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. K. Sittig, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), Vol. 10, Chap. 6, pp. 231–288.
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262, 1672 (1966); M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 263, 139 (1966).
  3. L. F. Mollenauer, D. Downie, H. Engstrom, W. B. Grant, Appl. Opt. 8, 661 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Kemp, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 950 (1969).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, Appl. Opt. 15, 1960 (1976).
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  8. J. C. Canit, J. Badoz, Appl. Opt. 22, 592 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. C. Canit, J. Badoz, Appl. Opt. 23, 2861 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. C. Canit, J. N. Chazalviel, Appl. Opt. 26, 22 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, M. F. Russel, J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 373 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. A. Modine, R. W. Major, Appl. Opt. 14, 761 (1975)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. Williams, Surf. Sci. 16, 147 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. W. Marchand, Gradient Index Optics (Academic, New York, 1978), Chaps. 5–7.
  15. J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. M. Frocht, Photoelasticity (Wiley, New York, 1967), Vol. 2, p. 127.

1991

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

1984

1983

1977

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, M. F. Russel, J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 373 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1975

1972

I. Chabay, E. C. Hsu, G. Holzwartz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 15, 211 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

L. F. Mollenauer, D. Downie, H. Engstrom, W. B. Grant, Appl. Opt. 8, 661 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Williams, Surf. Sci. 16, 147 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kemp, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 950 (1969).

1966

M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262, 1672 (1966); M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 263, 139 (1966).

Albert, J.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. D.

Badoz, J.

J. C. Canit, J. Badoz, Appl. Opt. 23, 2861 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Canit, J. Badoz, Appl. Opt. 22, 592 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, M. F. Russel, J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 373 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262, 1672 (1966); M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 263, 139 (1966).

Billardon, M.

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, M. F. Russel, J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 373 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262, 1672 (1966); M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 263, 139 (1966).

Braunstein, A. I.

Canit, J. C.

Chabay, I.

I. Chabay, E. C. Hsu, G. Holzwartz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 15, 211 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chazalviel, J. N.

Cheng, J. C.

Downie, D.

Engstrom, H.

Frocht, M. M.

M. M. Frocht, Photoelasticity (Wiley, New York, 1967), Vol. 2, p. 127.

Grant, W. B.

Holzwartz, G.

I. Chabay, E. C. Hsu, G. Holzwartz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 15, 211 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E. C.

I. Chabay, E. C. Hsu, G. Holzwartz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 15, 211 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T. F.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, J. C.

Major, R. W.

Marchand, E. W.

E. W. Marchand, Gradient Index Optics (Academic, New York, 1978), Chaps. 5–7.

Modine, F. A.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Nafie, L. A.

Russel, M. F.

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, M. F. Russel, J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 373 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sasnett, M. W.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sittig, E. K.

E. K. Sittig, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), Vol. 10, Chap. 6, pp. 231–288.
[CrossRef]

Williams, I.

I. Williams, Surf. Sci. 16, 147 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yip, G. L.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

C. R. Acad. Sci.

M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262, 1672 (1966); M. Billardon, J. Badoz, C. R. Acad. Sci. 263, 139 (1966).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

I. Chabay, E. C. Hsu, G. Holzwartz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 15, 211 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Albert, G. L. Yip, Electron. Lett. 23, 737 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. E. Siegman, M. W. Sasnett, T. F. Johnston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1098 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

J. Badoz, M. Billardon, J. C. Canit, M. F. Russel, J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 373 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

I. Williams, Surf. Sci. 16, 147 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. W. Marchand, Gradient Index Optics (Academic, New York, 1978), Chaps. 5–7.

E. K. Sittig, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972), Vol. 10, Chap. 6, pp. 231–288.
[CrossRef]

M. M. Frocht, Photoelasticity (Wiley, New York, 1967), Vol. 2, p. 127.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup used in the QPL case. (b) Only the modified parts used in the case of a HPL. The experimental setup is similar to that for (a), except that a second fiber was butted to its output face. The light from the fiber end was collimated by a different QPL to the analyzer and the detector. In the launch efficiency mode of operation, this analyzer was removed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs showing oscilloscope traces of the applied electrical signal to the PZT and the optical response in the birefringence mode of operation: (a) QPL, (b) HPL. The analyzer axis is at 90° with respect to the direction of the incident polarization. The incident polarization is making an angle of ~45° with the direction of the applied stress. The frequency is 1.078 MHz, and the electrical power is 2.5 W.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph showing oscilloscope traces of the applied electrical signal and the optical response from a HPL in the launch efficiency mode of operation. The zero level is out of scale, and the incident light level is within the range of the optical response sinusoid. The frequency is 1.089 MHz, and the electrical power is 2.5 W.

Equations (4)

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σ x = - 2 F π [ ( R - y ) x 2 r 1 4 + ( R + y ) x 2 r 2 4 - 1 2 R ] , σ y = - 2 F π [ ( R - y ) 3 r 1 4 + ( R + y ) 3 r 2 4 - 1 2 R ] ,
n x , y = n b { 1 - n b 2 2 E [ ( P 11 - ν p P 12 ) σ x , y + ( P 12 - ν p P 11 ) σ y , x ] } ,
n x , y n 0 [ 1 - ( A x , y * 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
A x , y * = A { 1 + 3 n 0 2 2 E [ ( P 11 - ν p P 12 ) σ x , y + ( P 12 - ν p P 11 ) σ y , x ] } ,

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