Abstract

We describe the preliminary design, fabrication, and demonstration of an array of micro-optics that is used to separate colors locally on the focal plane. The 64 × 64 array combines 100 μm × 100 μm, F/2 refractive microlenses with a 17-μm period grating. The microlenses concentrate the incoming radiation, while the grating disperses the radiation according to wavelength. The element, with a minimum feature size of 1 μm and total depth of 8 μm, is fabricated on a silicon wafer (for use in the 8–12-μm band) by means of a nonstandard binary-optics process.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. W. Farn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 106 (1992).
  2. M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).
  3. T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, S. Swanson, M. Holz, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 46 (1991).
  4. E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).
  5. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 77–87, 112–114.
  6. M. B. Stern, M. Holz, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3117 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2520 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992

M. W. Farn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 106 (1992).

M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2520 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. B. Stern, M. Holz, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, S. Swanson, M. Holz, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 46 (1991).

1983

E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).

Cox, J. A.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, S. Swanson, M. Holz, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 46 (1991).

Cross, E. F.

E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).

Delaney, W. F.

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

Farn, M. W.

M. W. Farn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 106 (1992).

Garber, W. A.

E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).

Gibb, O. L.

E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).

Holz, M.

M. B. Stern, M. Holz, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, S. Swanson, M. Holz, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 46 (1991).

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 77–87, 112–114.

Knowlden, R. E.

M. B. Stern, M. Holz, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, K. P.

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

Maschhoff, K. R.

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

Medeiros, S. S.

M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2520 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Stern, M. Holz, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spiro, I. J.

E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).

Stern, M. B.

M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2520 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

M. B. Stern, M. Holz, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, S.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, S. Swanson, M. Holz, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 46 (1991).

Welsh, J.

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

Werner, T. R.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, S. Swanson, M. Holz, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 46 (1991).

Wiemokly, G. D.

E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

M. B. Stern, M. Holz, S. S. Medeiros, R. E. Knowlden, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 3117 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Stern, S. S. Medeiros, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 2520 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

M. B. Stern, W. F. Delaney, M. Holz, K. P. Kunz, K. R. Maschhoff, J. Welsh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 216, 107 (1991).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

T. R. Werner, J. A. Cox, S. Swanson, M. Holz, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1544, 46 (1991).

E. F. Cross, W. A. Garber, G. D. Wiemokly, O. L. Gibb, I. J. Spiro, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 366, 10 (1983).

M. W. Farn, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1751, 106 (1992).

Other

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 77–87, 112–114.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Enhanced focal planes. (a) Monochrome: Each object point is imaged by the objective lens (not shown) into a converging ray bundle. The microlens, operating as a field lens, collects all ray bundles and concentrates them onto the undersized detector. (b) Color: The grating additionally disperses the ray bundles. The concentrated bundles are laterally displaced on the focal plane according to wavelength. Each detector detects a different part of the spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ideal thickness profile of the color-separation micro-optic. The grating component is evident along the y axis, whereas the lens curvature is evident along both x and y axes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscope image of the color-separation micro-optic. The dark straight lines are the grating resets, and the bright curves correspond to contours of constant thickness. The figure shows an approximately 3 × 3 section of the entire micro-optic array. The orientation is reversed from that of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the focal plane of the micro-optic array for (a) λ = 10.22 μm and (b) λ = 10.65 μm. Note the lateral shift of the focal spot for the longer wavelength. The grating blaze direction is indicated by the arrows.

Equations (3)

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t L ( x , y ) = t L 0 + ( b + b 2 - 4 a c ) / ( 2 a ) ,
t G ( x , y ) = t G 0 ( y mod T ) / T ,
t ( x , y ) = t G ( x , y ) + t L ( x , y ) ,

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