Abstract

We demonstrate an optical-time-domain reflectometer operating at λ = 1.3 μm. It features a spatial resolution of better than 5 cm and enough sensitivity to detect the Rayleigh scattering at the same resolution when operated with a low-power semiconductor laser. Field operation of the instrument is discussed.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. G. Bethea, B. F. Levine, S. Cova, G. Ripamonti, Opt. Lett. 13, 233 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. K. Garside, Photon. Spectra 22(9), 79 (1988).
  3. G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1278 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Healey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 267 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Lacaita, S. Cova, F. Zappa, P. A. Francese, Opt. Lett. 18, 75 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, S. Vanoli, Electron. Lett. 26, 1569 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, S. Vanoli, Electron. Lett. 26, 1569 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1278 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

1985 (1)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

P. Healey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 267 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

C. G. Bethea, B. F. Levine, S. Cova, G. Ripamonti, Opt. Lett. 13, 233 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
[Crossref]

Cohen, L. G.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

Francese, P. A.

Garside, B. K.

B. K. Garside, Photon. Spectra 22(9), 79 (1988).

Ghioni, M.

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1278 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, S. Vanoli, Electron. Lett. 26, 1569 (1990).
[Crossref]

Healey, P.

P. Healey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 267 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lacaita, A.

A. Lacaita, S. Cova, F. Zappa, P. A. Francese, Opt. Lett. 18, 75 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Levine, B. F.

C. G. Bethea, B. F. Levine, S. Cova, G. Ripamonti, Opt. Lett. 13, 233 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
[Crossref]

Morris, G. D.

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ripamonti, G.

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1278 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, S. Vanoli, Electron. Lett. 26, 1569 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. G. Bethea, B. F. Levine, S. Cova, G. Ripamonti, Opt. Lett. 13, 233 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanoli, S.

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, S. Vanoli, Electron. Lett. 26, 1569 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, L. G. Cohen, J. C. Campbell, G. D. Morris, Electron. Lett. 21, 83 (1985).
[Crossref]

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, S. Vanoli, Electron. Lett. 26, 1569 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. Ripamonti, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Healey, Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 267 (1984).
[Crossref]

Photon. Spectra (1)

B. K. Garside, Photon. Spectra 22(9), 79 (1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the dark count rate and the spatial resolution of the detector used on the bias voltage. For each point of the curve the bias voltage above the breakdown and the resulting quantum efficiency at 1.3 μm (in percent) are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OTDR measurement of a 172-m 50-μm/125-μm graded-index fiber obtained with the present technique. The curves before (trace a) and after (curve b) background subtraction are shown. The inset shows a closeup of the final Fresnel reflection. Notice the achieved spatial resolution. The measurement time is 3 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OTDR measurement of three fiber samples of lengths 31, 22, and 13 cm connected through plastic biconic connectors. The inset shows the measurement of a lossy fusion splice in a 30-m fiber. The measurements lasted 3 min.

Equations (1)

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S / N = n l n d + n l = 1 1 + n d / n l n l n l 0.95 ( S / N ) ql ,

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