Abstract

Two-beam-coupling gain coefficients exceeding the absorption coefficient are demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge in an organic photorefractive system. The material is based on the photoconducting polymer poly(N-vinylcarbazole), doped with the optically nonlinear chromophore 3-fluoro-4-N,N-diethylamino-β-nitrostyrene and sensitized for charge generation with 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone. The photorefractive performance is significantly better than that of any previously described organic. Diffraction efficiencies as large as 1% in a 125-μm sample, grating growth times of the order of 100 ms, and beam-coupling gain coefficients >10 cm−1 were observed at 647 nm (writing intensity of 1 W cm−2, applied field of 40 V μm−1).

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2967 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Stolka, in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1988), Vol. 11, p. 154.
  7. G. Weiser, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5028 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. D. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5033 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Sigelle, R. Hierle, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).
  11. M. B. Klein, Opt. Lett. 9, 350 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. P. Huignard, A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
  15. D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Yeh, Appl. Opt. 26, 602 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (4)

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

1990 (2)

A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
[CrossRef]

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

1981 (2)

J. P. Huignard, A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Sigelle, R. Hierle, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

G. Weiser, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5028 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5033 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Burland, D. M.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Feinberg, J.

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garmire, E. M.

A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
[CrossRef]

Gill, W. D.

W. D. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5033 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hierle, R.

M. Sigelle, R. Hierle, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

J. P. Huignard, A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
[CrossRef]

M. B. Klein, Opt. Lett. 9, 350 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Kost, A.

A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
[CrossRef]

Mahgerefteh, D.

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marrakchi, A.

J. P. Huignard, A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Matray, T. J.

Moerner, W. E.

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Partovi, A.

A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schildkraut, J. S.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Sigelle, M.

M. Sigelle, R. Hierle, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

Stolka, M.

M. Stolka, in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1988), Vol. 11, p. 154.

Twieg, R. J.

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, F. Hache, G. C. Bjorklund, W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 17, 1107 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Valley, G. C.

A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Walsh, C.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Walsh, C. A.

Weiser, G.

G. Weiser, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5028 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Partovi, A. Kost, E. M. Garmire, G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1089 (1990);
[CrossRef]

Y. Cui, Y. Zhang, P. N. Prasad, J. S. Schildkraut, D. J. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, J. C. Scott, W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2967 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. Weiser, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5028 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Gill, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 5033 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. Sigelle, R. Hierle, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4199 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. P. Huignard, A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, P. N. Prasad, Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Other (1)

M. Stolka, in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1988), Vol. 11, p. 154.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Beam-coupling ratio γ0 as a function of applied field at 647 nm (□), 676 nm (△), and 753 nm (○). Inset: gain coefficient Γ as a function of applied field at 753 nm for β = 1 (○) and β = 100 (●). The lines are fits to the data with slopes of 2.1 and 2.3, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamics of grating growth and decay at 676 nm with a 20-ps writing time: (a) erasure by recording beam only, (b) erasure by one writing beam, (c) writing in zero field, (d) removal of the E field at 20 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Grating growth rate 1/τ shown as a function of write intensity at 676 nm with an applied field of 32 V μm−1. The line is a fit to the data with a slope of 0.56. Inset: experimental trace (η versus t) for 1.3 W cm−2 and E = 32 V μm−1

Equations (1)

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Γ = 1 / L [ ln ( γ 0 β ) - ln ( β + 1 - γ 0 ) ] ,

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