Abstract

Double-doped KTN:Fe,Ti exhibits increased photorefractive sensitivity compared with single-doped KTN:Fe and KTN:Ti. Absorption and photoconductivity measurements correlate the increase with an increased concentration of Fe in the reduced Fe2+ valence state and to an increased fraction of Fe incorporated into the crystal from the of flux.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).
  2. W. Phillips, D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Leyva, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 701 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. M. Hannon, Phys. Rev. 164, 164 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Agranat, V. Leyva, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1148, 52 (1989).
  7. S. Treibwasser, Phys. Rev. 114, 63 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelectrics 27, 241 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  10. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1148, 52 (1989).

1987 (1)

P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

1980 (1)

E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelectrics 27, 241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Phillips, D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1967 (1)

D. M. Hannon, Phys. Rev. 164, 164 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

S. Treibwasser, Phys. Rev. 114, 63 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A.

V. Leyva, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 701 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1148, 52 (1989).

Amodei, J. J.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Gericke, P.

P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hannon, D. M.

D. M. Hannon, Phys. Rev. 164, 164 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, P.

P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kratzig, E.

P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelectrics 27, 241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

V. Leyva, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 701 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1148, 52 (1989).

Nisius, J. P.

P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Orlowski, R.

E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelectrics 27, 241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W.

W. Phillips, D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Sayano, K.

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1148, 52 (1989).

Sommerfeldt, R.

P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

W. Phillips, D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Treibwasser, S.

S. Treibwasser, Phys. Rev. 114, 63 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Yariv, A.

V. Leyva, A. Agranat, A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 701 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1148, 52 (1989).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Gericke, P. Hertel, E. Kratzig, J. P. Nisius, R. Sommerfeldt, Appl. Phys. B 44, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Ferroelectrics (1)

E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelectrics 27, 241 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

W. Phillips, D. L. Staebler, J. Electron. Mater. 3, 610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Phys. Rev. (2)

D. M. Hannon, Phys. Rev. 164, 164 (1967).
[CrossRef]

S. Treibwasser, Phys. Rev. 114, 63 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

A. Agranat, V. Leyva, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1148, 52 (1989).

RCA Rev. (1)

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of the KTN:Fe,Ti, KTN:Fe, and KTN:Ti samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference in the absorption spectra of the KTN:Fe,Ti and KTN:Fe samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phoitorefractive sensitivity measurements of the KTN:Fe,Ti, KTN:Fe, and KTN:Ti samples above each sample’s Curie temperature (λ = 514 nm, Λ = 5.1 μm, E = 1820 V/cm, and m = 0.2).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material Parameters of the KTN Samples Determined from Absorption and Photoconductivity Measurements

Equations (2)

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η = exp ( - α l ) sin 2 [ π Δ n λ cos ( θ / 2 ) ] ,
S = d n d ( α I t ) = Δ n α I τ ,

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