Abstract

Localized heating with a flame is shown to be a simple and effective method for substantially augmenting the photosensitivity of high-silica optical waveguides to (UV) light. The method increases the photosensitivity of standard (Ge-doped core) telecommunications fiber by a factor greater than 10 (photoinduced ΔnUV > 10−3) and renders strongly photosensitive the cores of high-quality Ge:SiO2-on-Si and Ge:SiO2-on-SiO2 planar waveguides that were negligibly photosensitive before treatment. We have written large-modulation-depth Bragg gratings, in both fiber and planar optical waveguides photosensitized by our method, using KrF (249-nm) radiation incident upon the waveguides through a zero-order-nulled phase mask. It is noteworthy that photosensitization by our method is achieved with a negligible increase in loss at the three principal optical communication windows.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 19, 583 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Hibino, M. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 27, 2294 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, Opt. Lett. 14, 823 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. G. Park, B. Y. Kim, Electron. Lett. 25, 797 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. St. J. Russel, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, D. P. Hand, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1373, 126 (1990).
  12. K. O. Hill, Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. G. Askins, T.-E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putman, M. Bashkansky, E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 17, 833 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. O. Hill, Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

C. G. Askins, T.-E. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putman, M. Bashkansky, E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 17, 833 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

Y. Hibino, M. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 27, 2294 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

P. St. J. Russel, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, D. P. Hand, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1373, 126 (1990).

M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

1983 (1)

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 19, 583 (1983).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Abe, M.

Y. Hibino, M. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 27, 2294 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ainslie, B. J.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Armitage, J. R.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Askins, C. G.

Bashkansky, M.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[Crossref]

Edahiro, T.

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 19, 583 (1983).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E. J.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Glenn, W. H.

Hand, D. P.

P. St. J. Russel, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, D. P. Hand, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1373, 126 (1990).

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, M. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 27, 2294 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 19, 583 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, B.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

H. G. Park, B. Y. Kim, Electron. Lett. 25, 797 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kominato, T.

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Hibino, M. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 27, 2294 (1991).
[Crossref]

Malo,

K. O. Hill, Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[Crossref]

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, G. D.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Meltz, G.

Morey, W. W.

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Hibino, M. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 27, 2294 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640 (1991).
[Crossref]

Park, H. G.

H. G. Park, B. Y. Kim, Electron. Lett. 25, 797 (1989).
[Crossref]

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

P. St. J. Russel, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, D. P. Hand, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1373, 126 (1990).

Putman, M. A.

Russel, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russel, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, D. P. Hand, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1373, 126 (1990).

Skinner, I.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.-E.

Williams, D. L.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[Crossref]

Williams, G. M.

Yasu, M.

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 19, 583 (1983).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035 (1993).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (6)

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, T. Edahiro, Electron. Lett. 19, 583 (1983).
[Crossref]

Y. Hibino, M. Abe, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, Electron. Lett. 27, 2294 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. G. Park, B. Y. Kim, Electron. Lett. 25, 797 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, I. Skinner, Electron. Lett. 26, 1270 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, Electron. Lett. 27, 1548 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Hibino, T. Kominato, Y. Ohmori, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 640 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391 (1990).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

P. St. J. Russel, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, D. P. Hand, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1373, 126 (1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of the maximum (saturated) photoinduced index change observed in Corning SMF-28 fiber as a function of processing time under the flame brush.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficient of the substrate and waveguide layer before flame-brush treatment multiplied by 200 (curve a) and of the waveguide layer after flame-brush treatment (curve b). Curve c is the photoinduced change in the absorption coefficient of the flame-photosensitized waveguide layer after exposure to UV light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lowest-order TM-mode spectral response of a 1.15-mm Bragg grating written in a flame-brushed standard Ge:SiO2-on-Si channel waveguide. The circles are theoretical values for a uniform Bragg grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured transmission (solid curve) spectrum of a 4-mm-long Bragg grating in Ge:SiO2-on-Si waveguide. The dashed curve is a theoretical fit to the experimental data with refractive-index modulation depth values obtained from the grating response shown in Fig. 3.

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