Abstract

We describe a new technique, femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography, for time-gated imaging of objects embedded in scattering media. Time gating is performed with a fiber-optic interferometer with femtosecond pulses and coherent heterodyne detection to achieve a 130-dB dynamic range. A confocal imaging arrangement provides additional spatial discrimination against multiply scattered light. By time gating ballistic photons, we achieve 125-μm-resolution images of absorbing objects in media 27 scattering mean free paths thick. We derive a fundamental limit on ballistic imaging thickness based on quantum noise considerations.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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1992 (2)

1991 (9)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, X. Gan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1755 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 1019 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 16, 1868 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[Crossref]

E. N. Leith, C. Chen, H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Lopez, P.-C. Sun, D. Dilworth, Opt. Lett. 16, 1820 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, Appl. Opt. 30, 788 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

1989 (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Abramson, N. H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Berg, R.

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruckner, A. P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Cheong, W.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Das, B. B.

Davies, E. R.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

Duncan, M. D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichimura, T.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[Crossref]

Inaba, H.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ishimaru, A.

Jackson, P. C.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jarlman, O.

Key, H.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kondo, M.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kruger, R. A.

Kuga, Y.

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

Lopez, J. L.

Lui, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahon, R.

Prahl, S. A.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

Rudd, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Spears, K. G.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, P.-C.

Svanberg, S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tankersley, L. L.

Toida, M.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[Crossref]

Valdmanis, J.

Vossler, G.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wells, P. N. T.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, K. S.

Xing, Q.

Yoo, K. M.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

With 800-nm light, the maximum permissible exposure for skin is 1.7t1/4 J cm−2, where t is the pulse-train exposure duration in seconds [ANSI Z136 (American National Standards Institute, 1986]. Assuming a scanned 100 × 100 pixel image, 10-min total acquisition time, and 500-μm spatial resolution, the maximum energy E permitted per pixel is 2.1 mJ.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber-optic transillumination optical coherence tomography system. 2-D, two dimensional.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coherence-gated images of a resolution chart embedded in 27 scattering MFP’s of 1-μm-diameter microspheres for various coherence-gate delays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved scattering profiles of coherent photon migration through various concentrations of 1-μm-diameter microspheres. Linear plot of normalized interference signal magnitude versus normalized coherence-gate delay for concentrations of microspheres ranging from 0 to 50 MFP’s. Points a, b, and c relate the coherence-gated images in Fig. 2 to a specific normalized delay on the time-resolved scattering profiles. Inset: attenuation of ballistic (circles) and diffuse (squares) peak powers obtained from the scattering profiles.

Equations (1)

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L ballistic = 1 μ t ln ( 1 2 E h v ) ,

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