Abstract

We describe a new technique, femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography, for time-gated imaging of objects embedded in scattering media. Time gating is performed with a fiber-optic interferometer with femtosecond pulses and coherent heterodyne detection to achieve a 130-dB dynamic range. A confocal imaging arrangement provides additional spatial discrimination against multiply scattered light. By time gating ballistic photons, we achieve 125-μm-resolution images of absorbing objects in media 27 scattering mean free paths thick. We derive a fundamental limit on ballistic imaging thickness based on quantum noise considerations.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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1992 (2)

1991 (9)

J. C. Hebden, R. A. Kruger, K. S. Wong, Appl. Opt. 30, 788 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, Opt. Lett. 16, 1019 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Leith, C. Chen, H. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Lopez, P.-C. Sun, D. Dilworth, Opt. Lett. 16, 1820 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, J. Reintjes, Opt. Lett. 16, 1868 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, X. Gan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1755 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

1989 (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Abramson, N. H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

Andersson-Engels, S.

Berg, R.

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruckner, A. P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Chen, Y.

Cheong, W.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Das, B. B.

Davies, E. R.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

Duncan, M. D.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hebden, J. C.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichimura, T.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

Jackson, P. C.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarlman, O.

Key, H.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, M.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, R. A.

Kuga, Y.

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

Lopez, J. L.

Lui, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahon, R.

Prahl, S. A.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

Rudd, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Spears, K. G.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P.-C.

Svanberg, S.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tankersley, L. L.

Toida, M.

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

Vossler, G.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wells, P. N. T.

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, K. S.

Xing, Q.

Yoo, K. M.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Toida, M. Kondo, T. Ichimura, H. Inaba, Appl. Phys. B 52, 391 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

H. Key, E. R. Davies, P. C. Jackson, P. N. T. Wells, Phys. Med. Biol. 36, 579 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Lui, G. Zhang, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

With 800-nm light, the maximum permissible exposure for skin is 1.7t1/4 J cm−2, where t is the pulse-train exposure duration in seconds [ANSI Z136 (American National Standards Institute, 1986]. Assuming a scanned 100 × 100 pixel image, 10-min total acquisition time, and 500-μm spatial resolution, the maximum energy E permitted per pixel is 2.1 mJ.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber-optic transillumination optical coherence tomography system. 2-D, two dimensional.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coherence-gated images of a resolution chart embedded in 27 scattering MFP’s of 1-μm-diameter microspheres for various coherence-gate delays.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved scattering profiles of coherent photon migration through various concentrations of 1-μm-diameter microspheres. Linear plot of normalized interference signal magnitude versus normalized coherence-gate delay for concentrations of microspheres ranging from 0 to 50 MFP’s. Points a, b, and c relate the coherence-gated images in Fig. 2 to a specific normalized delay on the time-resolved scattering profiles. Inset: attenuation of ballistic (circles) and diffuse (squares) peak powers obtained from the scattering profiles.

Equations (1)

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L ballistic = 1 μ t ln ( 1 2 E h v ) ,

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