Abstract

The permanent all-optical poling of an azo-aromatic acrylic copolymer is experimentally demonstrated by seeding preparation in a backward phase-conjugation geometry. The microscopic mechanism involves an orientational hole burning followed by orientational redistribution caused by trans-to-cis isomerization of the azo-dye chromophores. The characteristic kinetics of growth and decay of the noncentrosymmetry grating is monitored by second-harmonic generation.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 7, 310 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, Opt. Lett. 12, 585 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. For a review seeF. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, M. Poirier, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 2 (1992).
  4. F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. M. Krol, M. M. Broer, K. T. Nelson, R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, W. Pleibel, Opt. Lett. 16, 211 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Gegiou, K. A. Muszkat, E. Fisher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3907 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Rau, Photochemistry and Photophysics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1990), Vol. II, Chap. 4.
  11. C. Jones, S. Day, Nature (London) 351, 15 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Anderle, R. Birenhide, M. J. A. Werner, J. H. Wendorif, Liq. Cryst. 9, 691 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, A. M. Prokhorov, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second-harmonic generation in dye-doped polymers,” submitted to Sov. J. Lightwave Commun.
  14. Z. Sekkat, M. Dumont, Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 226 (1991); P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1775, 121 (1993).

1992 (4)

For a review seeF. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, M. Poirier, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 2 (1992).

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, M. Dumont, Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (5)

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 226 (1991); P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1775, 121 (1993).

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, M. M. Broer, K. T. Nelson, R. H. Stolen, H. W. K. Tom, W. Pleibel, Opt. Lett. 16, 211 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jones, S. Day, Nature (London) 351, 15 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Anderle, R. Birenhide, M. J. A. Werner, J. H. Wendorif, Liq. Cryst. 9, 691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1968 (1)

D. Gegiou, K. A. Muszkat, E. Fisher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3907 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anderle, K.

K. Anderle, R. Birenhide, M. J. A. Werner, J. H. Wendorif, Liq. Cryst. 9, 691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Birenhide, R.

K. Anderle, R. Birenhide, M. J. A. Werner, J. H. Wendorif, Liq. Cryst. 9, 691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Broer, M. M.

Charra, F.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, S.

C. Jones, S. Day, Nature (London) 351, 15 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, A. M. Prokhorov, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second-harmonic generation in dye-doped polymers,” submitted to Sov. J. Lightwave Commun.

Dragostinova, V.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

Z. Sekkat, M. Dumont, Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, E.

D. Gegiou, K. A. Muszkat, E. Fisher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3907 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gadret, G.

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 226 (1991); P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1775, 121 (1993).

Gagnon, D.

For a review seeF. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, M. Poirier, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 2 (1992).

Gegiou, D.

D. Gegiou, K. A. Muszkat, E. Fisher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3907 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gosselin, J.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C.

C. Jones, S. Day, Nature (London) 351, 15 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 226 (1991); P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1775, 121 (1993).

Kazansky, P. G.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, A. M. Prokhorov, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second-harmonic generation in dye-doped polymers,” submitted to Sov. J. Lightwave Commun.

Krol, D. M.

LaRochelle, S.

For a review seeF. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, M. Poirier, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 2 (1992).

Margulis, W.

Muszkat, K. A.

D. Gegiou, K. A. Muszkat, E. Fisher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3907 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. T.

Nikolova, L.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Österberg, U.

Ouellette, F.

For a review seeF. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, M. Poirier, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 2 (1992).

Pleibel, W.

Poirier, M.

For a review seeF. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, M. Poirier, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 2 (1992).

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, A. M. Prokhorov, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second-harmonic generation in dye-doped polymers,” submitted to Sov. J. Lightwave Commun.

Raimond, P.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 226 (1991); P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1775, 121 (1993).

Rau, H.

H. Rau, Photochemistry and Photophysics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1990), Vol. II, Chap. 4.

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

Z. Sekkat, M. Dumont, Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, A. M. Prokhorov, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second-harmonic generation in dye-doped polymers,” submitted to Sov. J. Lightwave Commun.

Stepanov, D. Yu.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, A. M. Prokhorov, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second-harmonic generation in dye-doped polymers,” submitted to Sov. J. Lightwave Commun.

Stolen, R. H.

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

Tomova, N.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wendorif, J. H.

K. Anderle, R. Birenhide, M. J. A. Werner, J. H. Wendorif, Liq. Cryst. 9, 691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Werner, M. J. A.

K. Anderle, R. Birenhide, M. J. A. Werner, J. H. Wendorif, Liq. Cryst. 9, 691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. Sekkat, M. Dumont, Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Rochon, J. Gosselin, A. Natansohn, S. Xie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 4 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1262 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Gegiou, K. A. Muszkat, E. Fisher, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3907 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

K. Anderle, R. Birenhide, M. J. A. Werner, J. H. Wendorif, Liq. Cryst. 9, 691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. Jones, S. Day, Nature (London) 351, 15 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 226 (1991); P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, F. Kajzar, P. Raimond, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1775, 121 (1993).

For a review seeF. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, S. LaRochelle, M. Poirier, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1516, 2 (1992).

Other (2)

H. Rau, Photochemistry and Photophysics (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1990), Vol. II, Chap. 4.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, A. M. Prokhorov, D. S. Starodubov, D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second-harmonic generation in dye-doped polymers,” submitted to Sov. J. Lightwave Commun.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Beam arrangement for the backward seeding experiment. Beams 1 and 3 are writing beams. The signal beam 4 is the second harmonic of readout beam 2 and the phase conjugate of beam 3. Beams 1 and 2 are counterpropagating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time evolution of the χ(2) grating as probed by the second harmonic of beam 2 during (filled circles) and after (open circles) the 100-s preparation by beams 1 and 3. The inset shows the logarithmic evolution on a longer time scale. SHG, second-harmonic generation.

Equations (2)

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[ μ E 3 cos θ + μ Δ μ ( ω 0 - ω ) E 1 2 cos 2 θ ] × 1 - exp [ i ( ω 0 - 2 ω ) t ] ( ω 0 - 2 ω ) ,
[ μ μ * E 3 E 3 * cos 2 θ + μ μ * Δ μ 2 ( ω ) 2 E 1 2 E 1 * 2 cos 4 θ + μ μ * Δ μ ω ( E 1 2 E 3 * + E 1 * 2 E 3 ) cos 3 θ ] p ( 2 ω ) ,

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