Abstract

Nonlinear absorption at 532 nm in a C60–toluene solution by using 8-ns and 30-ps laser pulses is reported. The transmittance for both pulse widths is fluence dependent. A five-level model of C60 is described that yields excellent agreement with both pulse-width data sets for incident fluences as high as approximately 1 J/cm2. Additional phenomena observed at higher fluences indicate that other mechanisms may be active and contribute to optical limiting in this regime. The application of C60 as an optical limiter material is discussed.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. McLean, M. G. Schmitt, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, D. M. Brandelik, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 179.
  5. T. W. Ebbeson, K. Tanigaki, K. Sadanori, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Terazima, N. Hirota, H. Sinohara, Y. Saito, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 9080 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Skumanich, Chem. Phys. Lett. 182, 486 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. K. Palit, A. V. Sapre, J. P. Mittal, V. N. R. Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 1 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Lee, O.-K. Song, J.-C. Seo, D. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 325 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. W. Tutt, S. W. McCahon, Opt. Lett. 15, 700 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (4)

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Palit, A. V. Sapre, J. P. Mittal, V. N. R. Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, O.-K. Song, J.-C. Seo, D. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

M. Terazima, N. Hirota, H. Sinohara, Y. Saito, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 9080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Skumanich, Chem. Phys. Lett. 182, 486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbeson, K. Tanigaki, K. Sadanori, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt, S. W. McCahon, Opt. Lett. 15, 700 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ajie, H.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, M. M.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anz, S. J.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Beck, R. D.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D. M.

D. G. McLean, M. G. Schmitt, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, D. M. Brandelik, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 179.

Brant, M. C.

D. G. McLean, M. G. Schmitt, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, D. M. Brandelik, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 179.

Callaghan, J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardin, D. J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colclasure, C.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Crane, R. L.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Diedrich, F.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ebbeson, T. W.

T. W. Ebbeson, K. Tanigaki, K. Sadanori, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Epling, B.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Fostiropoulos, K.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henari, F.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, N.

M. Terazima, N. Hirota, H. Sinohara, Y. Saito, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 9080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

M. Lee, O.-K. Song, J.-C. Seo, D. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kleinschmidt, J.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krätschmer, R. Y.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, O.-K. Song, J.-C. Seo, D. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McCahon, S. W.

McLean, D.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

McLean, D. G.

D. G. McLean, M. G. Schmitt, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, D. M. Brandelik, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 179.

Mittal, J. P.

D. K. Palit, A. V. Sapre, J. P. Mittal, V. N. R. Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Obermeirer, K.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Pachter, R.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Palit, D. K.

D. K. Palit, A. V. Sapre, J. P. Mittal, V. N. R. Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rao, V. N. R.

D. K. Palit, A. V. Sapre, J. P. Mittal, V. N. R. Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rentsch, S.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sadanori, K.

T. W. Ebbeson, K. Tanigaki, K. Sadanori, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

M. Terazima, N. Hirota, H. Sinohara, Y. Saito, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 9080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sapre, A. V.

D. K. Palit, A. V. Sapre, J. P. Mittal, V. N. R. Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M. G.

D. G. McLean, M. G. Schmitt, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, D. M. Brandelik, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 179.

Schriver, K. E.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sensharma, D.

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.-C.

M. Lee, O.-K. Song, J.-C. Seo, D. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sinohara, H.

M. Terazima, N. Hirota, H. Sinohara, Y. Saito, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 9080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Skumanich, A.

A. Skumanich, Chem. Phys. Lett. 182, 486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Song, O.-K.

M. Lee, O.-K. Song, J.-C. Seo, D. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stiel, H.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

D. G. McLean, M. G. Schmitt, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, D. M. Brandelik, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 179.

Tanigaki, K.

T. W. Ebbeson, K. Tanigaki, K. Sadanori, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Terazima, M.

M. Terazima, N. Hirota, H. Sinohara, Y. Saito, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 9080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V.

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

Tottleben, W.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt, S. W. McCahon, Opt. Lett. 15, 700 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelmi, B.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (6)

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbeson, K. Tanigaki, K. Sadanori, Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Skumanich, Chem. Phys. Lett. 182, 486 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Palit, A. V. Sapre, J. P. Mittal, V. N. R. Rao, Chem. Phys. Lett. 195, 1 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, B. Wilhelmi, Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, O.-K. Song, J.-C. Seo, D. Kim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 325 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

H. Ajie, M. M. Alvarez, S. J. Anz, R. D. Beck, F. Diedrich, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, R. Y. Krätschmer, K. E. Schriver, D. Sensharma, J. Phys. Chem. 49, 8630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Terazima, N. Hirota, H. Sinohara, Y. Saito, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 9080 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, Nature (London) 356, 225 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

D. Brandelik, D. McLean, M. Schmitt, B. Epling, C. Colclasure, V. Tondiglia, R. Pachter, K. Obermeirer, R. L. Crane, in Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid State Materials, Vol. 247 of Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), p. 361.
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, M. G. Schmitt, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, D. M. Brandelik, in Annual Meeting, Vol. 23 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), p. 179.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy transmittance of a 2.59-mM C60–toluene solution in a 1-mm cuvette as a function of on-axis incident fluence for 8-ns (circles) and 30-ps (crosses) 532-nm laser pulses. The solid curves are theoretical calculations for the two data sets based on a five-level model described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Population density calculations as a function of time at the exit plane of the sample for an incident intensity of (a) 160 MW/cm2 (8-ns laser pulses) and (b) 15 GW/cm2 (30-ps laser pulses).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S 0 / t = - σ 0 S 0 ϕ ,
S 1 / t = σ 0 S 0 ϕ - k isc S 1 ,
ϕ z = { σ 0 S 0 + σ 1 S 1 ( k Sn k Sn + σ 1 ϕ ) + σ 2 k Tn k Tn + 2 σ 2 ϕ × [ 1 - S 0 - S 1 ( k Sn k Sn + σ 1 ϕ ) ] } N ϕ ,

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