Abstract

Spectral hole burning is reported for the trivalent thulium ion with measurements on the 3H6(1) ↔ 3H4(1) transition of LaF3:Tm3+ and two sites (A and B) of CaF2:Tm3+ at 1.5 K. Hole burning occurs by population storage in the metastable 3F4 level. The holes were scanned by an electric-field ramp applied directly to the sample, the frequency being calibrated by burning multiple holes with a frequency-modulated laser. This yielded the hole widths as well as the Stark coefficients for the transition studied, which are 8.3 kHz/V cm−1 parallel to the C2 axis (LaF3:Tm3+) and for CaF2:Tm3+ are 25 kHz/V cm−1 (site A), and 4.6 kHz/V cm−1 (site B) for fields along the (001) direction. From the polarization behavior of the holes, the sites in CaF2 are assigned to the F-compensated C4v and C3v sites, respectively.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, in Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare Earth Ions, A. A. Kaplyanskii, R. M. Macfarlane, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 51.
  2. R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 545 (1979); R. M. Macfarlane, in A. L. Schawlow: Laser Spectroscopy and Ideas, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Yen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987), p. 205.
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Szabo, M. Kroll, Opt. Commun. 18, 224 (1976); T. Muramoto, S. Nakanishi, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 21, 139 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. J. Cockroft, T. P. J. Han, R. J. Reeves, G. D. Jones, R. W. G. Syme, Opt. Lett. 12, 36 (1987); R. M. Macfarlane, R. J. Reeves, G. D. Jones, Opt. Lett. 12, 660 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Commun. 27, 399 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. P. Wang, R. S. Meltzer, Phys. Rev. B 45, 10119 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. J. Meixner, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 5912 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. R. Tallant, D. S. Moore, J. C. Wright, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2897 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Zalkin, D. H. Templeton, T. E. Hopkins, Inorg. Chem. 5, 1466 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. P. Wild, S. E. Bucher, F. A. Burkhalter, Appl. Opt. 24, 1526 (1985); C. De Caro, A. Renn, U. P. Wild, Appl. Opt. 30, 2890 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 36, 213 (1974); A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 39, 437 (1975); Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 1578 (1975).
    [PubMed]

1992 (2)

Y. P. Wang, R. S. Meltzer, Phys. Rev. B 45, 10119 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Meixner, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 5912 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 545 (1979); R. M. Macfarlane, in A. L. Schawlow: Laser Spectroscopy and Ideas, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Yen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987), p. 205.
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Commun. 27, 399 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. R. Tallant, D. S. Moore, J. C. Wright, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2897 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. Szabo, M. Kroll, Opt. Commun. 18, 224 (1976); T. Muramoto, S. Nakanishi, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 21, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 36, 213 (1974); A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 39, 437 (1975); Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 1578 (1975).
[PubMed]

1966 (1)

A. Zalkin, D. H. Templeton, T. E. Hopkins, Inorg. Chem. 5, 1466 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bucher, S. E.

Burkhalter, F. A.

Cockroft, N. J.

Han, T. P. J.

Hopkins, T. E.

A. Zalkin, D. H. Templeton, T. E. Hopkins, Inorg. Chem. 5, 1466 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jefferson, C. M.

A. J. Meixner, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 5912 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G. D.

Kaplyanskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 36, 213 (1974); A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 39, 437 (1975); Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 1578 (1975).
[PubMed]

Kroll, M.

A. Szabo, M. Kroll, Opt. Commun. 18, 224 (1976); T. Muramoto, S. Nakanishi, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 21, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

A. J. Meixner, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 5912 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 545 (1979); R. M. Macfarlane, in A. L. Schawlow: Laser Spectroscopy and Ideas, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Yen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987), p. 205.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Commun. 27, 399 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, in Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare Earth Ions, A. A. Kaplyanskii, R. M. Macfarlane, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 51.

Medvedev, V. N.

A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 36, 213 (1974); A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 39, 437 (1975); Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 1578 (1975).
[PubMed]

Meixner, A. J.

A. J. Meixner, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 5912 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, R. S.

Y. P. Wang, R. S. Meltzer, Phys. Rev. B 45, 10119 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D. S.

D. R. Tallant, D. S. Moore, J. C. Wright, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2897 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R. J.

Shelby, R. M.

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 545 (1979); R. M. Macfarlane, in A. L. Schawlow: Laser Spectroscopy and Ideas, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Yen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987), p. 205.
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Commun. 27, 399 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, in Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare Earth Ions, A. A. Kaplyanskii, R. M. Macfarlane, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 51.

Skvortsov, A. P.

A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 36, 213 (1974); A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 39, 437 (1975); Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 1578 (1975).
[PubMed]

Syme, R. W. G.

Szabo, A.

A. Szabo, M. Kroll, Opt. Commun. 18, 224 (1976); T. Muramoto, S. Nakanishi, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 21, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tallant, D. R.

D. R. Tallant, D. S. Moore, J. C. Wright, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2897 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Templeton, D. H.

A. Zalkin, D. H. Templeton, T. E. Hopkins, Inorg. Chem. 5, 1466 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. P.

Y. P. Wang, R. S. Meltzer, Phys. Rev. B 45, 10119 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wild, U. P.

Wright, J. C.

D. R. Tallant, D. S. Moore, J. C. Wright, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2897 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zalkin, A.

A. Zalkin, D. H. Templeton, T. E. Hopkins, Inorg. Chem. 5, 1466 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Chem. Phys. Lett. 64, 545 (1979); R. M. Macfarlane, in A. L. Schawlow: Laser Spectroscopy and Ideas, M. D. Levenson, W. M. Yen, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987), p. 205.
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

A. Zalkin, D. H. Templeton, T. E. Hopkins, Inorg. Chem. 5, 1466 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. R. Tallant, D. S. Moore, J. C. Wright, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 2897 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Szabo, M. Kroll, Opt. Commun. 18, 224 (1976); T. Muramoto, S. Nakanishi, T. Hashi, Opt. Commun. 21, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Shelby, R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Commun. 27, 399 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 36, 213 (1974); A. A. Kaplyanskii, V. N. Medvedev, A. P. Skvortsov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 39, 437 (1975); Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 1578 (1975).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. P. Wang, R. S. Meltzer, Phys. Rev. B 45, 10119 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Meixner, C. M. Jefferson, R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 46, 5912 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. M. Macfarlane, R. M. Shelby, in Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare Earth Ions, A. A. Kaplyanskii, R. M. Macfarlane, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 51.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram for Tm3+ showing population storage in the 3F4 metastable level, which is responsible for hole burning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral holes in the 3H6(1) ↔ 3H4(1) transition of CaF2:Tm3+ assigned to the C4v site at 1.6 K. (a) The voltage ramp applied to scan the holes, (b) the hole probed by this ramp, (c) the three holes separated by 10 MHz, burned with sidebands at ± 10 MHz on the laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral holes in the 3H6(1) ↔ 3H4(1) transition of CaF2:Tm3+ assigned to the C3v site at 1.6 K. (a) The voltage ramp applied to scan the holes, (b) the hole probed by this ramp for EL || Es, (c) the same hole probed with ELEs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral hole burned in the 12554.6-cm−1 line of LaF3:Tm3+ using the ramp of Fig. 2(a). (a) The geometry of the applied electric field relative to the crystal axes, (b) the applied Stark ramp, (c) the resulting spectral hole. Calibration of the frequency scale was again provided by burning multiple holes with a frequency-modulated laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Spectroscopic Parameters of the Tm3+ Centers

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