Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first successful attempt in prism coupling a laser beam into a lithium niobate optical waveguide grown on a thermally oxidized (100) Si substrate by magnetron rf sputtering. Bragg x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, and birefringence measurements confirm that the sputtered films were nearly stoichiometric as well as highly textured lithium niobate. The refractive indices were nTE = 2.199 ± 0.002 and nTM = 2.263 ± 0.002. The lowest propagation loss in the waveguide was determined to be 1.9 ± 0.1 dB/cm at a wavelength of 633 nm.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).
  3. G. Griffel, S. Ruschin, N. Croitoru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1385 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yamada, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2848 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Integrated Ferroelectrics 2, 13 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H.-J. Huang, “Thin film lithium niobate optical waveguides for integrated optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Rice University, Houston, Tex., 1992).
  7. C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Electron Device Lett. 13, 609 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, A. P. Grande, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 230 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Takada, M. Ohnishi, H. Hayakawa, N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 490 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W.-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M.-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. K. Burns, J. Warner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 441 (1974).
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1992 (4)

A. Yamada, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Integrated Ferroelectrics 2, 13 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Electron Device Lett. 13, 609 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Griffel, S. Ruschin, N. Croitoru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, A. P. Grande, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 230 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Takada, M. Ohnishi, H. Hayakawa, N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 490 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns, J. Warner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 441 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Baumann, R. C.

T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borland, W. C.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

Callahan, D. L.

T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.-K.

W.-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M.-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978).

Croitoru, N.

G. Griffel, S. Ruschin, N. Croitoru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eriksrud, M.

L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, A. P. Grande, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 230 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grande, A. P.

L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, A. P. Grande, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 230 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Griffel, G.

G. Griffel, S. Ruschin, N. Croitoru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haruna, M.

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Hayakawa, H.

S. Takada, M. Ohnishi, H. Hayakawa, N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 490 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. H.-J.

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Integrated Ferroelectrics 2, 13 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Electron Device Lett. 13, 609 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H.-J. Huang, “Thin film lithium niobate optical waveguides for integrated optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Rice University, Houston, Tex., 1992).

Jackson, H. E.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, J. W.

W.-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M.-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978).

Mikoshiba, N.

S. Takada, M. Ohnishi, H. Hayakawa, N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 490 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nakken, G.

L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, A. P. Grande, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 230 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nicolet, M.-A.

W.-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M.-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978).

Nishihara, N.

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Ohnishi, M.

S. Takada, M. Ohnishi, H. Hayakawa, N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 490 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rabson, T. A.

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Electron Device Lett. 13, 609 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Integrated Ferroelectrics 2, 13 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Radens, C. J.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rost, T. A.

T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruschin, S.

G. Griffel, S. Ruschin, N. Croitoru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, M.

A. Yamada, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

Svaasand, L. O.

L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, A. P. Grande, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 230 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Takada, S.

S. Takada, M. Ohnishi, H. Hayakawa, N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 490 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tamada, H.

A. Yamada, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Warner, J.

Weis, R. S.

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, A.

A. Yamada, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

R. S. Weis, T. K. Gaylord, Appl. Phys. 37, 191 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Griffel, S. Ruschin, N. Croitoru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Yamada, H. Tamada, M. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2848 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Takada, M. Ohnishi, H. Hayakawa, N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 490 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Electron Device Lett. (1)

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Electron Device Lett. 13, 609 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. C. Borland, D. E. Zelmon, C. J. Radens, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1172 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Integrated Ferroelectrics (1)

C. H.-J. Huang, T. A. Rabson, Integrated Ferroelectrics 2, 13 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. A. Rost, H. Lin, T. A. Rabson, R. C. Baumann, D. L. Callahan, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

L. O. Svaasand, M. Eriksrud, G. Nakken, A. P. Grande, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 230 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (3)

W.-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, M.-A. Nicolet, Backscattering Spectrometry (Academic, New York, 1978).

N. Nishihara, M. Haruna, T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).

C. H.-J. Huang, “Thin film lithium niobate optical waveguides for integrated optics,” Ph.D. dissertation (Rice University, Houston, Tex., 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bragg x-ray diffraction patterns of a LiNbO3 thin film sputtered onto SiO2/(100)Si. The thickness of the buffer layer is 2500 nm, and the thickness of the LiNbO3 film is 638 nm. The substrate temperature was (a) 550 °C and (b) 400 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RBS/NRA spectrum of a LiNbO3 film on Si with 1.5-MeV incident H+ ions. The scattered particles were detected at an angle of 150°. The film thickness is ~180 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation measurement of the guided modes for a TE incident beam in a sputtered LiNbO3/SiO2/(100)Si optical waveguide. The thickness of the buffer layer is 2500 nm, and the thickness of the LiNbO3 film is 638 nm. The laser light wavelength is 633 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optimized rf Magnetron Sputtering Parameters for Growth of LiNbO3 Films on SiO2/(100)Si

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