Abstract

The fabrication of an ion-exchanged waveguide beam deflector containing a photowritten grating is described. The planar waveguide was fabricated by thermal K+ exchange in a borosilicate glass. The grating was written by photobleaching an absorption defect centered at 330 nm, which was created by γ-ray irradiation of the glass. The bleaching was accomplished with the 351-nm line from an argon laser. The device achieved 35% deflection efficiency at 633 nm, which corresponded to a grating with a photoinduced index change of 2.6 × 10−5. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of an ion-exchanged glass waveguide device containing a permanent photowritten grating.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Barbier, M. Green, S. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. M. Broer, R. L. Cone, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1391 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, J. P. Waters, Electron. Lett. 26, 1829 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 17, 420 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. M. Broer, A. J. Bruce, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7077 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 17, 532 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (6)

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 17, 420 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, A. J. Bruce, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 17, 532 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, R. L. Cone, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1391 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, J. P. Waters, Electron. Lett. 26, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Ainslie, B. J.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, Opt. Lett. 17, 420 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, J. P. Waters, Electron. Lett. 26, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Brebner, J. L.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Broer, M. M.

M. M. Broer, A. J. Bruce, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, R. L. Cone, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1391 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruce, A. J.

M. M. Broer, A. J. Bruce, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cone, R. L.

Dutt, D. A.

Friebele, E. J.

Glenn, W. H.

Green, M.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grodkiewicz, W. H.

M. M. Broer, A. J. Bruce, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Kajrys, G.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kilian, A.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Madden, S.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Maxwell, G. D.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Morey, W. W.

Morse, T. F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Oh, K.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Reinhart, L.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Roman, J. E.

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruller, J. A.

Simpson, J. R.

Trudeau, Y. B.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Waters, J. P.

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, J. P. Waters, Electron. Lett. 26, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

Winick, K. A.

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2744 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. A. Ball, W. W. Morey, J. P. Waters, Electron. Lett. 26, 1829 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Maxwell, R. Kashyap, B. J. Ainslie, D. L. Williams, J. R. Armitage, Electron. Lett. 28, 2106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. Madden, J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. M. Broer, A. J. Bruce, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Phys. Rev. B 45, 7077 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum for unirradiated and irradiated 970ANR glass; the sample thickness is 0.8 mm. The doses are 0, 1, 10, and 100 Mrad for curves a–d, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photobleaching of a radiation-induced band in 970ANR glass. The sample thickness is 0.8 mm, and the dose is 100 Mrad.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoinduced index change in 970ANR glass.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Waveguide beam deflector.

Equations (5)

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Δ n eff ( λ ) = 1 2 π 2 P 0 Δ α eff ( λ ) 1 - ( λ / λ ) 2 d λ ,
Δ α eff ( λ ) = ( 1 / L ) 0 L Δ α ( λ , z ) d z ,
T bl ( λ ) = T unbl ( λ ) exp [ Δ α eff ( λ ) L ] ,
η = sin 2 [ π L ( Δ n eff / 2 ) / λ ] ,
Δ n eff ( λ ) = ( 1 / L ) 0 L Δ n ( λ , z ) d z .

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