Abstract

Permanent photoinduced optical attenuation has been observed in Tm3+-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers on exposure to near-resonance mode-locked 1064-nm radiation at 300 K. The rate of this darkening was observed to follow a 4.7 ± 0.4 power dependence on the 1064-nm intensity. The result shows that absorption of infrared light of moderate intensity can lead to photoionization in rare-earth-doped glass, provided that a multiphoton stepwise excitation channel exists.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Broer, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1264 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. M. Broer, R. L. Cone, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1391 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.
  4. D. M. Krol, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1650 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. M. Williams, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Sigel, R. Th. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc.244, 59 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. G. Behrens, R. C. Powell, D. H. Blackburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1437 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. M. Krol, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, “Observation of resonance enhancement of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  8. A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig-Ryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. 25, 478 (1989).
  12. J. R. Simpson, M. M. Broer, D. J. DiGiovanni, K. W. Quoi, S. G. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper TuL2.

1992 (1)

M. M. Broer, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1990 (3)

E. G. Behrens, R. C. Powell, D. H. Blackburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig-Ryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. 25, 478 (1989).

1988 (1)

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig-Ryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Behrens, E. G.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Blackburn, D. H.

Broer, M. M.

M. M. Broer, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, R. L. Cone, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1391 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Simpson, M. M. Broer, D. J. DiGiovanni, K. W. Quoi, S. G. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper TuL2.

Cone, R. L.

Craig, S. P.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Craig-Ryan, S. P.

A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig-Ryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig-Ryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

M. M. Broer, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, “Observation of resonance enhancement of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. R. Simpson, M. M. Broer, D. J. DiGiovanni, K. W. Quoi, S. G. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper TuL2.

Friebele, E. J.

G. M. Williams, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Sigel, R. Th. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc.244, 59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig-Ryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Johnston, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Kilian, A.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Kosinski, S. G.

J. R. Simpson, M. M. Broer, D. J. DiGiovanni, K. W. Quoi, S. G. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper TuL2.

Krol, D. M.

D. M. Krol, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1650 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Krol, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, “Observation of resonance enhancement of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Mallinson, S. R.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Millar, C. A.

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morse, T. F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Oh, K.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Percival, R. M.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perry, I. R.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pleibel, W.

D. M. Krol, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, “Observation of resonance enhancement of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Powell, R. C.

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. 25, 478 (1989).

Quoi, K. W.

J. R. Simpson, M. M. Broer, D. J. DiGiovanni, K. W. Quoi, S. G. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper TuL2.

Reinhart, L.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

Ruller, J. A.

G. M. Williams, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Sigel, R. Th. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc.244, 59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. 25, 478 (1989).

Simpson, J. R.

M. M. Broer, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Broer, R. L. Cone, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1391 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Krol, J. R. Simpson, Opt. Lett. 16, 1650 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Simpson, M. M. Broer, D. J. DiGiovanni, K. W. Quoi, S. G. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper TuL2.

Smart, R. G.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

D. M. Krol, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, “Observation of resonance enhancement of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Townsend, J. E.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Sigel, R. Th. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc.244, 59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig-Ryan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. (1)

L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, Electron. 25, 478 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. A. Millar, S. R. Mallinson, B. J. Ainslie, S. P. Craig, Electron. Lett. 24, 590 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. M. Broer, J. R. Simpson, D. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, A. C. Tropper, Opt. Commun. 78, 187 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

G. M. Williams, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Sigel, R. Th. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds., Mater. Res. Soc. Proc.244, 59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnston, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reinhart, K. Oh, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD3.

D. M. Krol, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. Pleibel, R. H. Stolen, “Observation of resonance enhancement of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. R. Simpson, M. M. Broer, D. J. DiGiovanni, K. W. Quoi, S. G. Kosinski, in Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper TuL2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time dependence of relative transmitted intensity at 600 nm in a Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fiber at 300 K as a function of different 1064-nm (average) pump power levels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption spectrum of an unexposed section of a Tm-doped aluminosilicate 50.2-cm glass fiber. The baseline absorption is an experimental artifact. (b) Induced attenuation of the same fiber (9.5-cm length), exposed to mode-locked 1064-nm radiation. Arrows indicate Tm3+4f–4f transitions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power dependence of l/e decay rate of the transmission at 600 nm in a Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Partial energy-level diagram of Tm3+. Straight arrows correspond to absorption at 1064 nm, whereas wiggly arrows indicate nonradiative decay.

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