Abstract

All-optical switching by using a nondegenerate cascaded second-order nonlinearity is described wherein a phase shift is induced at one frequency owing to the presence of intense light at a different frequency. A Mach–Zehnder waveguide device is proposed to take advantage of this process and has applications for all-optical switching and demultiplexing, potentially at power levels near 10 W by using quasi-phase matching in semiconductor waveguides.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. J. Bakker, P. C. M. Planken, L. Kuipers, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 42, 4085 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Gagarskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989).
  3. R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, J. M. Arnold, “An all-optical switch employing the cascaded second-order effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  5. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper QTuI16.
  6. P. N. Butcher, D. Cotter, in The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, P. L. Knight, W. J. Firth, eds., Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), Chap. 7.
  7. S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Van der Ziel, M. Ilegems, P. W. Foy, R. M. Mikulyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 775 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. M. Coy, S. Ciraci, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 40 (1975).
  11. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (3)

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. J. Bakker, P. C. M. Planken, L. Kuipers, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 42, 4085 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Gagarskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989).

1982 (1)

S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. P. Van der Ziel, M. Ilegems, P. W. Foy, R. M. Mikulyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 775 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. M. Coy, S. Ciraci, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 40 (1975).

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, J. M. Arnold, “An all-optical switch employing the cascaded second-order effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Arnold, J. M.

C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, J. M. Arnold, “An all-optical switch employing the cascaded second-order effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Bakker, H. J.

H. J. Bakker, P. C. M. Planken, L. Kuipers, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 42, 4085 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belashenkov, N. R.

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Gagarskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989).

Butcher, P. N.

P. N. Butcher, D. Cotter, in The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, P. L. Knight, W. J. Firth, eds., Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), Chap. 7.

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Coy, S. Ciraci, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 40 (1975).

Ciraci, S.

M. M. Coy, S. Ciraci, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 40 (1975).

Cotter, D.

P. N. Butcher, D. Cotter, in The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, P. L. Knight, W. J. Firth, eds., Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), Chap. 7.

Coy, M. M.

M. M. Coy, S. Ciraci, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 40 (1975).

DeSalvo, R.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Foy, P. W.

J. P. Van der Ziel, M. Ilegems, P. W. Foy, R. M. Mikulyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 775 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gagarskii, S. V.

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Gagarskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989).

Hagan, D. J.

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper QTuI16.

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper QTuI16.

Ilegems, M.

J. P. Van der Ziel, M. Ilegems, P. W. Foy, R. M. Mikulyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 775 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Inochkin, M. V.

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Gagarskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989).

Ironside, C. N.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, J. M. Arnold, “An all-optical switch employing the cascaded second-order effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Jensen, S. M.

S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

H. J. Bakker, P. C. M. Planken, L. Kuipers, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 42, 4085 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

H. J. Bakker, P. C. M. Planken, L. Kuipers, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 42, 4085 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mikulyak, R. M.

J. P. Van der Ziel, M. Ilegems, P. W. Foy, R. M. Mikulyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 775 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

H. J. Bakker, P. C. M. Planken, L. Kuipers, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 42, 4085 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper QTuI16.

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, G. I.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. Van der Ziel, M. Ilegems, P. W. Foy, R. M. Mikulyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 775 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, Opt. Lett. 17, 28 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper QTuI16.

Vanherzeele, H.

Villeneuve, A.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wigley, P. J.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. P. Van der Ziel, M. Ilegems, P. W. Foy, R. M. Mikulyak, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 775 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Wang, P. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. M. Coy, S. Ciraci, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 40 (1975).

S. M. Jensen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

N. R. Belashenkov, S. V. Gagarskii, M. V. Inochkin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 66, 806 (1989).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. J. Bakker, P. C. M. Planken, L. Kuipers, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. A 42, 4085 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, J. M. Arnold, “An all-optical switch employing the cascaded second-order effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper QTuI16.

P. N. Butcher, D. Cotter, in The Elements of Nonlinear Optics, P. L. Knight, W. J. Firth, eds., Vol. 9 of Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990), Chap. 7.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Response of a dual-wavelength cascaded second-order nonlinearity as a function of the scaled pump power |Φ2(ζ = 0)|2. (a) Depletion of the signal irradiance for a phase mismatch such that ΔkL = π and for the various values of the scaled signal irradiance |Φ1(ζ = 0)|2 = 0.01 (solid curve), |Φ1(ζ = 0)|2 = 0.1 (dotted curve), and |Φ1(ζ = 0)|2 = 1 (dashed curve). (b) Same as (a) but for a phase mismatch ΔkL = 2π. (c) Nonlinear phase change induced in the signal beam under the same parameters as (a). (d) Nonlinear phase change induced in the signal beam under the same parameters as for (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mach–Zehnder dual-wavelength switch for a second-order cascaded nonlinearity. A grating is placed on the arm where the two optical frequencies (ω1 and ω2) will both be present to ensure the correct phase mismatch between the input wavelengths and the sum frequency.

Equations (7)

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d E 1 d z = i ω 1 2 n 1 c χ ( 2 ) ( ω 3 , - ω 2 ) E 2 * E 3 exp ( - i Δ k z ) , d E 2 d z = i ω 2 2 n 2 c χ ( 2 ) ( ω 3 , - ω 1 ) E 1 * E 3 exp ( - i Δ k z ) , d E 3 d z = i ω 3 2 n 3 c χ ( 2 ) ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) E 1 E 2 exp ( i Δ k z ) ,
χ ( 2 ) ( ω 3 , - ω 2 ) = χ ( 2 ) ( ω 3 , - ω 1 ) = χ ( 2 ) ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) .
d Φ 1 d ζ = i Φ 2 * Φ 3 exp ( - i ζ ) , d Φ 2 d ζ = i ω 2 ω 1 Φ 1 * Φ 3 exp ( - i ζ ) , d Φ 3 d ζ = i ( 1 + ω 2 ω 1 ) Φ 1 Φ 2 exp ( i ζ ) .
Φ j = ω 1 2 c Δ k n j n 1 n 2 n 3 χ ( 2 ) ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) E j .
d 2 Φ 1 d ζ 2 + i d Φ 1 d ζ + [ ( 1 + ω 2 ω 1 ) Φ 2 2 - ω 2 ω 1 Φ 3 2 ] Φ 1 = 0.
d 2 Φ 1 d ζ 2 + i d Φ 1 d ζ + ( 1 + ω 2 ω 1 ) Φ 2 ( ζ = 0 ) 2 Φ 1 = 0.
Δ n ( ω 1 ) = ( ω 1 + ω 2 ) 2 0 c 2 Δ k [ χ ( 2 ) ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) ] 2 n 1 n 2 n 3 I 2 ,

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