Abstract

Undoped single crystals of the organic electro-optic material 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline were found to show photorefractive effects owing to light-induced charge separation. In two-wave-mixing experiments, beam-coupling gains as high as 2.2 cm−1 and response times as low as 8 s at writing intensities of 130 mW/cm2 were measured at a wavelength λ = 514.5 nm. An analysis of the experimental data shows that the beam-coupling gain is limited by the electro-optic response of the material, while the response time is characterized by a large optical absorption and a low quantum efficiency for carrier generation.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Connors, P. D. Foote, Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Staebler, in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
  3. P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).
  12. G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyani-line (MNBA) crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).
  13. W. S. Wang, J. Hulliger, H. Arend, Ferroelectrics 92, 113 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. C. Valley, J. F. Lam, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Günter, J.P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 75.
    [CrossRef]
  16. Extrapolated value from data given in Ref. 12.

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (5)

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

W. S. Wang, J. Hulliger, H. Arend, Ferroelectrics 92, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Connors, P. D. Foote, Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Arend, H.

W. S. Wang, J. Hulliger, H. Arend, Ferroelectrics 92, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ballman, A. A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyani-line (MNBA) crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Boyd, G. D.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Connors, L. M.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Connors, P. D. Foote, Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Foote, P. D.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Connors, P. D. Foote, Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, S.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

Gotoh, T.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter, P. Günter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyani-line (MNBA) crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Hall, T. J.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Connors, P. D. Foote, Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wang, J. Hulliger, H. Arend, Ferroelectrics 92, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, M.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jaura, R.

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Connors, P. D. Foote, Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Knöpfle, G.

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyani-line (MNBA) crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Kondoh, T.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

Lam, J. F.

G. C. Valley, J. F. Lam, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Günter, J.P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 75.
[CrossRef]

Levinstein, H. J.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mataki, H.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

Moerner, W. E.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassau, K.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Schlesser, R.

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyani-line (MNBA) crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R. G.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

D. L. Staebler, in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).

Sutter, K.

Tsunekawa, T.

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, J. F. Lam, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Günter, J.P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 75.
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. S.

W. S. Wang, J. Hulliger, H. Arend, Ferroelectrics 92, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, H. J. Levinstein, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, M. Iwamoto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 166, 353 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

W. S. Wang, J. Hulliger, H. Arend, Ferroelectrics 92, 113 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Günter, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

T. Tsunekawa, T. Gotoh, H. Mataki, T. Kondoh, S. Fukuda, M. Iwamoto, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1337, 272 (1990).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Hall, R. Jaura, L. M. Connors, P. D. Foote, Prog. Quantum Electron. 10, 77 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. Sutter, J. Hulliger, P. Günter, Solid State Commun. 74, 867 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. L. Staebler, in Holographic Recording Materials, H. M. Smith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).

P. Günter, J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, R. Schlesser, P. Günter, “Optical, nonlinear optical, and electro-optical properties of 4′-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyani-line (MNBA) crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (to be published).

G. C. Valley, J. F. Lam, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, P. Günter, J.P. Huignard, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 75.
[CrossRef]

Extrapolated value from data given in Ref. 12.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Single molecule of MNBA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficients of MNBA for polarizations along the dielectric axes x1 and x3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam-coupling gain as a function of the grating spacing Λ. The grating vector and light polarization are along the dielectric axis x1; measurements were performed at a wavelength λ = 514.5 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Response of the square root of the diffraction efficiency and definition of the response time τ. The writing intensity is 2 × 65 mW/cm2, the grating spacing is Λ = 2.95 μm, the writing beams are at λ = 514.5 nm, and the grating readout beams are at λ = 632.8 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response time as a function of the square of the grating vector K2 = (2π/Λ)2 at a wavelength λ = 514.5 nm. The writing intensity is 2 × 65 mW/cm2.

Equations (3)

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Γ = R E q E d E q + E d 2 π n 3 r λ cos θ cos 2 θ ,
E d = q e k B T e K ,             E q = q K 0 N * ,
τ = 1 + K 2 L D 2 1 + K 2 L S 2 τ di ,

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