Abstract

Integrated-optic acousto-optic filters have large asymmetric sidelobes that have not been explained in previous publications. We show that this is caused by waveguide birefringence nonuniformity. For the devices described here, the dominant cause of the nonuniformity is a thermal gradient associated with the generation and absorption of the surface acoustic wave. When the thermal birefringence gradient is included in the coupled-mode model, asymmetric sidelobes in good agreement with observations are predicted. In addition, we show that waveguide inhomogeneities also lead to birefringence nonuniformity and can be used to tailor the birefringence to supress sidelobes in a two-section acousto-optic filter.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. M. Choy, K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 171 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. E. Harris, R. W. Wallace, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 744 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Smith, J. J. Johnson, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 88–89.
  5. H. Herrmann, S. Schmid, Electron. Lett. 28, 979 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, K. W. Cheung, J. J. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 209 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. N. Binh, J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 964 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Findakly, B. Chen, D. Booher, Opt. Lett. 8, 641 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, “Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

1992 (3)

A. Kar-Roy, C. S. Tsai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann, S. Schmid, Electron. Lett. 28, 979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, K. W. Cheung, J. J. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 209 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. M. Choy, K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

L. N. Binh, J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Baran, J. E.

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, K. W. Cheung, J. J. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 209 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Choy, K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, “Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Binh, L. N.

L. N. Binh, J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Booher, D.

Chen, B.

Cheung, K. W.

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, K. W. Cheung, J. J. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 209 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Choy, K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Choy, M. M.

M. M. Choy, K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, “Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Findakly, T.

Harris, S. E.

Herrmann, H.

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann, S. Schmid, Electron. Lett. 28, 979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. J.

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, K. W. Cheung, J. J. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 209 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, J. J. Johnson, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 88–89.

Kar-Roy, A.

A. Kar-Roy, C. S. Tsai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, J.

L. N. Binh, J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Reich, P.

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, V.

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, S.

H. Herrmann, S. Schmid, Electron. Lett. 28, 979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, H.

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, K. W. Cheung, J. J. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 209 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Choy, K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Smith, J. J. Johnson, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 88–89.

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, “Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

Sohler, W.

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. S.

A. Kar-Roy, C. S. Tsai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, R. W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, K. W. Cheung, J. J. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 209 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Herrmann, S. Schmid, Electron. Lett. 28, 979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Herrmann, P. Müller-Reich, V. Reimann, R. Ricken, H. Seibert, W. Sohler, Electron. Lett. 28, 642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. N. Binh, J. Livingstone, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 964 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. M. Choy, K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 171 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Kar-Roy, C. S. Tsai, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1132 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

D. A. Smith, A. d’Alessandro, J. E. Baran, “Source of sidelobe asymmetry in integrated acousto-optic filters,” submitted to Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. A. Smith, J. J. Johnson, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 10 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 88–89.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-section acousto-optic filter on x-cut, y-propagating LiNbO3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solid curve: a plot of the measured AOTF conversion efficiency versus drive frequency detuning from 209.85 MHz on a single-section 17-mm-long AOTF; the optical input wavelength is 1315 nm. Dashed curve: the calculated efficiency with a 5 °C gradient included in the model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured conversion efficiency versus drive frequency deviation from 209.44 MHz when a hot wire is placed in the center of the AOTF interaction region. The sidelobes are shifted to the high-frequency side by the induced temperature gradient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Solid curve: the birefringence-apodized AOTF conversion efficiency versus drive frequency detuning from 210 MHz assuming a 17-mm interaction length per section and a 1315-nm input wavelength. Dotted curve: the unapodized sinc2 response. Dashed curve: the cosine result. All three plots are for cascaded two-section AOTF’s.

Equations (4)

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P TM ( y ) = K 2 ( K 2 + Δ β 2 4 ) sin 2 ( K 2 + Δ β 2 4 y ) .
Δ β = 2 π Δ n λ 2 π f a υ a ,
Δ T ( y ) = Q ˙ 2 π t λ c ln ( y 0 y ) , y y 0 ,
Δ T ( ° C ) = 0 . 40 ± 1 . 92 × 10 5 y 2 ± 2 . 14 × 10 4 y 4 ± 2 . 05 × 10 5 y 6 ,

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