Abstract

The effects of controlled atmosphere heat treatments on the photosensitivity and UV absorption of GeO2–SiO2 solgel planar waveguides are presented. Photoinduced refractive-index changes in the samples are deduced from photosensitive grating writing experiments and are found to be of the order of those seen in some fiber experiments. A correlation is seen between the sample sensitivity and the strength of the absorption at 242 nm, providing insight into the possible mechanisms governing photosensitive processes in these materials.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. D. Simmons, S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, G. Stegeman, D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 16, 141 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. V. Garino-Canina, C. R. Acad. Sci. 242, 1982 (1956).
  5. M. J. Yuen, Appl. Opt. 21, 136 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. LaRochelle, F. Ouellette, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper JTuA7.
  8. R. M. Atkins, Opt. Lett. 17, 469 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Z. Yin, P. Jessop, B. Garside, Appl. Opt. 22, 4088 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. G. Chen, J. H. Simmons, in Glasses for Electronic Applications, R. K. Nair, D. R. Uhlmann, eds. (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1991), pp. 299–307.
  11. B. G. Potter, R. Ochoa, D. G. Chen, J. H. Simmons, Opt. Lett. 17, 1349 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 43, 433 (1991), and references therein.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

1991 (3)

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 43, 433 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. D. Simmons, S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, G. Stegeman, D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 16, 141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

V. Garino-Canina, C. R. Acad. Sci. 242, 1982 (1956).

Atkins, R. M.

Chen, D. G.

B. G. Potter, R. Ochoa, D. G. Chen, J. H. Simmons, Opt. Lett. 17, 1349 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Chen, J. H. Simmons, in Glasses for Electronic Applications, R. K. Nair, D. R. Uhlmann, eds. (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1991), pp. 299–307.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, D.

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813 (1991).
[Crossref]

Garino-Canina, V.

V. Garino-Canina, C. R. Acad. Sci. 242, 1982 (1956).

Garside, B.

Griscom, D. L.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Jessop, P.

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

LaRochelle, S.

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 43, 433 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Simmons, S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, G. Stegeman, D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 16, 141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. LaRochelle, F. Ouellette, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper JTuA7.

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 43, 433 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Simmons, S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, G. Stegeman, D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 16, 141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ochoa, R.

Ouellette, F.

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. LaRochelle, F. Ouellette, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper JTuA7.

Poirer, M.

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813 (1991).
[Crossref]

Potter, B. G.

Simmons, J. H.

B. G. Potter, R. Ochoa, D. G. Chen, J. H. Simmons, Opt. Lett. 17, 1349 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Chen, J. H. Simmons, in Glasses for Electronic Applications, R. K. Nair, D. R. Uhlmann, eds. (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1991), pp. 299–307.

Simmons, K. D.

Sipe, J.

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 43, 433 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G.

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 43, 433 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Simmons, S. LaRochelle, V. Mizrahi, G. Stegeman, D. L. Griscom, Opt. Lett. 16, 141 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, J.

J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.

Yuen, M. J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Ouellette, D. Gagnon, M. Poirer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1813 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

V. Garino-Canina, C. R. Acad. Sci. 242, 1982 (1956).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Stone, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4371 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Mizrahi, S. LaRochelle, G. Stegeman, J. Sipe, Phys. Rev. A 43, 433 (1991), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. G. Chen, J. H. Simmons, in Glasses for Electronic Applications, R. K. Nair, D. R. Uhlmann, eds. (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1991), pp. 299–307.

S. LaRochelle, F. Ouellette, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper JTuA7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UV absorption spectra of samples heat treated at 550 °C under a flowing H2/N2 (1:20 volume ratio) atmosphere. Heat-treatment schedules are as follows: curve (a), 2 h; curve (b), 1 h; curve (c), 30 min; curve (d), as-deposited sample, no heat treatment. Small oscillations at wavelengths longer than 200 nm in curve (d) and 275 nm in curves (a)–(c) arise from Fabry–Perot interference in the film. Peaks at 242 and 191 nm in curves (a)–(c) do not change position with incidence angle and correspond to absorption. The inset shows the intensity of the loss at 242 nm for each of the samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used to write photosensitive gratings. A’s, alignment apertures; L’s, focusing/collimating lenses; M’s, mirrors; W, fused-silica wedge; PR reflected signal detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical growth curve for photosensitive grating in 2-h heat-treated sample. Scattered signal is taken before the grating is written. The intensity of light reflected form the induced grating is measured by blocking the seed beam after the grating has saturated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Induced index change in heat-treated samples versus the exposure time and the absorption loss at 242 nm.

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