Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first demonstration of simultaneous measurement of tropospheric temperature and aerosol extinction coefficient profiles using a high-spectral-resolution Rayleigh–Mie lidar. With the pressure at a single reference height independently provided, our lidar inversion is capable of deducing the vertical atmospheric profiles, including temperature, pressure, and density, as well as aerosol profiles, including backscatter ratio, extinction coefficient, and backscatter phase function.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Y. She, Contemp. Phys. 31, 247 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Schwiesow, L. Lading, Appl. Opt. 20, 1972 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. T. Shipley, D. H. Tracy, E. W. Elaranta, J. T. Trauger, J. T. Sroga, F. L. Roesler, J. A. Weinman, Appl. Opt. 22, 3716 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Shimizu, S. A. Lee, C. Y. She, Appl. Opt. 22, 1373 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. J. Lehmann, S. A. Lee, C. Y. She, Opt. Lett. 11, 563 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. T. Young, Phys. Today 35(1), 42 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, C. R. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).
  10. R. J. Alvarez, “Measurement of tropospheric temperature and aerosol extinction using high-spectral-resolution lidar,” Ph.D. dissertation (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1991).
  11. Melles Griot, Optics Guide No. 5 (Irvine, Calif., 1990), p. 13.
  12. D. R. Bates, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. M. Penney, R. L. Peters, M. Lapp, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 712 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Shardanand, A. D. Prasad-Rao, “Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and Freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions,” NASA Tech. Note TN D-8442 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1977).
  15. G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (3)

C. Y. She, Contemp. Phys. 31, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

D. R. Bates, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

A. T. Young, Phys. Today 35(1), 42 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1974 (2)

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, C. R. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

C. M. Penney, R. L. Peters, M. Lapp, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 712 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, R. J.

E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, “Measurement of tropospheric temperature and aerosol extinction using high-spectral-resolution lidar,” Ph.D. dissertation (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1991).

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Boley, C. D.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, C. R. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

Caldwell, L. M.

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Desai, C. R.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, C. R. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

Dombroski, M.

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Elaranta, E. W.

Griot, Melles

Melles Griot, Optics Guide No. 5 (Irvine, Calif., 1990), p. 13.

Kagann, R. H.

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Korb, C. L.

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, D. A.

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, E.

E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lading, L.

Lapp, M.

Lee, S. A.

Lehmann, F. J.

Li, Y. H.

E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Milrod, J.

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Penney, C. M.

Peters, R. L.

Prasad-Rao, A. D.

Shardanand, A. D. Prasad-Rao, “Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and Freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions,” NASA Tech. Note TN D-8442 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Roesler, F. L.

Schwemmer, G.

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schwiesow, R. L.

Shardanand,

Shardanand, A. D. Prasad-Rao, “Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and Freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions,” NASA Tech. Note TN D-8442 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1977).

She, C. Y.

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. She, Contemp. Phys. 31, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Lehmann, S. A. Lee, C. Y. She, Opt. Lett. 11, 563 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shimizu, S. A. Lee, C. Y. She, Appl. Opt. 22, 1373 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

Shipley, S. T.

Sroga, J. T.

Tenti, G.

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, C. R. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

Tracy, D. H.

Trauger, J. T.

Walden, H.

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

Young, A. T.

A. T. Young, Phys. Today 35(1), 42 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Kuchta, R. J. Alvarez, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, Appl. Phys. B 50, 129 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, C. R. Desai, Can. J. Phys. 52, 285 (1974).

Contemp. Phys. (1)

C. Y. She, Contemp. Phys. 31, 247 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

R. J. Alvarez, L. M. Caldwell, Y. H. Li, D. A. Krueger, C. Y. She, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 7, 876 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Today (1)

A. T. Young, Phys. Today 35(1), 42 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

D. R. Bates, Planet. Space Sci. 32, 785 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Schwemmer, M. Dombroski, C. L. Korb, J. Milrod, H. Walden, R. H. Kagann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 2226 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Shardanand, A. D. Prasad-Rao, “Absolute Rayleigh scattering cross sections of gases and Freons of stratospheric interest in the visible and ultraviolet regions,” NASA Tech. Note TN D-8442 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1977).

R. J. Alvarez, “Measurement of tropospheric temperature and aerosol extinction using high-spectral-resolution lidar,” Ph.D. dissertation (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1991).

Melles Griot, Optics Guide No. 5 (Irvine, Calif., 1990), p. 13.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the high-spectral-resolution Rayleigh–Mie lidar for measuring vertical aerosol and atmospheric profiles. For the backscattered signal, x polarized becomes s polarized and y polarized becomes p polarized. IF1, IF2, optical interference filters; PMT1, PMT2, photomultiplier tubes; bs, beam splitter; s, s polarization; p, p polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature and aerosol extinction coefficient profiles for the night of February 4–5, 1991. Each lidar profile was integrated over 20,000 laser pulses (20 min) and was taken in 75-m range bins. The data are spatially smoothed by using a running 11-point Parzen window, which yields an effective resolution of 375 m. Lidar temperature is compared with that of a nearby balloonsonde. The transmitted laser energy is approximately 150 μJ/pulse. Times are MST.

Equations (5)

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N i on = E i on h ν A z 2 Δ z ξ i ( z ) β m ( z ) f m i f 0 × exp [ - 2 d z α ( z ) ] ,
N i off = E i off h ν A z 2 Δ z ξ i ( z ) [ β a ( z ) + β m ( z ) ] × exp [ - 2 d z α ( z ) ] ,
f m 1 ( T , P ) f m 2 ( T , P ) = N 1 on / N 2 on N 1 off / N 2 off = C 1 C 2 .
α a ( z ) = 1 2 d d z ln [ β m ( z ) f m i ( T , P ) N i o n z 2 f 0 ( T ) ] - n ( z ) σ
δ T = { [ δ ln ( C 1 C 2 ) ] 2 + [ δ ln ( f m 1 f m 2 ) ] 2 } 0.5 / S T 12 ,

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