Abstract

When exposed to an Ar laser at 514 nm, azo-dye molecules in a nematic liquid-crystal host undergo photoisomerization from trans-isomers to cis-isomers. The conformation change of the azo-dye molecules reorients liquid-crystal molecules. Reversible polarization holograms can be recorded dynamically by this effect, with a threshold intensity as low as 3.0 mW/cm2 and a response time from a few hundred microseconds to 100 ms, depending on the spatial frequency of the recorded grating.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. C. Khoo, R. Normandin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Ross, J. Blanc, in Photochromism, G. H. Brown, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.
  5. T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. G. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974), Chap. 5.
  7. H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 656 (1982).

1990

T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

I. C. Khoo, R. Normandin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 656 (1982).

Blanc, J.

D. L. Ross, J. Blanc, in Photochromism, G. H. Brown, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974), Chap. 5.

Eich, M.

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hsiung, H.

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, R. Normandin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, S.

T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, T.

T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Normandin, R.

I. C. Khoo, R. Normandin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ross, D. L.

D. L. Ross, J. Blanc, in Photochromism, G. H. Brown, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

Shen, Y. R.

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. P.

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 656 (1982).

Tazuke, S.

T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Tsukada, M.

T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wendorff, J. H.

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 656 (1982).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

I. C. Khoo, R. Normandin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun.

M. Eich, J. H. Wendorff, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 8, 467 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

T. Ikeda, T. Miyamoto, S. Kurihara, M. Tsukada, S. Tazuke, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182B, 373 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, Sov. Phys. JETP 55, 656 (1982).

Other

P. G. de Gennes, Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974), Chap. 5.

D. L. Ross, J. Blanc, in Photochromism, G. H. Brown, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra for Methyl Red sodium salt (1%) in PCB nematic liquid crystals. ║ and ⊥ correspond to the polarization of the probing beam parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the liquid-crystal molecular director.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probe diffraction efficiency as a function of time. The polarizations of the probe beam and the writing beams relative to the molecular director are shown by the following curves: (a) ⊥, ⊥; (b) ║, ║; (c) ║, ⊥; and(d) ⊥, ║. ║ and ⊥ represent polarizations parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the liquid-crystal molecular director.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reciprocal of grating decay time versus the square of the grating spatial frequency.

Equations (8)

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γ ϕ t = K 1 cos 2 ϕ d 2 ϕ d x 2 + K 2 d 2 ϕ d z 2 1 2 K 1 sin ( 2 ϕ ) ( d ϕ d x ) 2 + 1 2 Δ α E 2 sin ( 2 ϕ ) ,
E 2 = E 1 2 + E 2 2 + 2 | E 1 E 2 | cos [ ( k 2 k 1 ) r ] .
ϕ = ϕ m [ 1 exp ( t / τ ) ] cos ( π z / L ) [ 1 + δ cos ( q x ) ] ,
K ( d 2 ϕ d z 2 + d 2 ϕ d x 2 ) K ϕ ( d ϕ d x ) 2 + 1 2 Δ α E 2 sin 2 ϕ = 0 .
E 0 c = [ K δ ( π 2 L 2 + q 2 ) 2 Δ α ( 1 + δ ) ] 1 / 2 .
ϕ m 2 = C [ 1 K δ ( π 2 L 2 + q 2 ) 2 Δ α ( 1 + δ ) | E 0 | 2 ] ,
τ on = γ 2 Δ α | E 0 | 2 K ( q 2 + π 2 / L 2 ) .
τ off = γ K ( q 2 + π 2 / L 2 ) .

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