Abstract

Polarization coupling is demonstrated in a 0.1-m-long length of nitrobenzene-cored weakly birefringent single-mode optical fiber. Self-switching of the launched mode to the orthogonal polarization is observed at peak powers as low as 1 W A total phase shift of at least 12π was induced at a launched peak power of approximately 10 W To our knowledge, this is the largest phase shift observed experimentally in any nonlinear waveguide at such a low power. The low transmission loss of nitrobenzene makes the device highly attractive for a variety of nonlinear switching applications.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. M. Dziedzic, R. H. Stolen, A. Ashkin, Appl. Opt. 20, 1403 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Stolen, J. Botineau, A. Ashkin, Opt. Lett. 7, 512 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1186 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Finlayson, B. K. Nayar, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 27, 1209 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. G. Winful, Opt. Lett. 11, 33 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. Daino, G. Gregori, S. Wabnitz, Opt. Lett. 11, 43 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. F. Feldman, D. A. Weinberger, H. G. Winful, Opt. Lett. 15, 311 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. A. Newhouse, D. L. Weidman, D. W. Hall, Opt. Lett. 15, 1185 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. L. Smith, in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Vol. III, p. 259.
  14. C. S. Winter, S. N. Oliver, J. D. Rush, Opt. Commun. 69, 45 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Kashyap, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 682, 170 (1986).

1991 (2)

N. Finlayson, B. K. Nayar, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 27, 1209 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

1988 (3)

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1186 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. S. Winter, S. N. Oliver, J. D. Rush, Opt. Commun. 69, 45 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (4)

R. Kashyap, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 682, 170 (1986).

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful, Opt. Lett. 11, 33 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Daino, G. Gregori, S. Wabnitz, Opt. Lett. 11, 43 (1986).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1964 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

Assanto, G.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
[Crossref]

Banyai, W. C.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

Botineau, J.

Daino, B.

P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. Daino, G. Gregori, S. Wabnitz, Opt. Lett. 11, 43 (1986).
[Crossref]

Doran, N. J.

N. Finlayson, B. K. Nayar, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 27, 1209 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Feldman, S. F.

Ferro, P.

P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
[Crossref]

Finlayson, N.

N. Finlayson, B. K. Nayar, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 27, 1209 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gregori, G.

B. Daino, G. Gregori, S. Wabnitz, Opt. Lett. 11, 43 (1986).
[Crossref]

Haelterman, M.

P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. W.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 682, 170 (1986).

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507 (1964).
[Crossref]

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1186 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nayar, B. K.

N. Finlayson, B. K. Nayar, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 27, 1209 (1991).
[Crossref]

Newhouse, M. A.

Oliver, S. N.

C. S. Winter, S. N. Oliver, J. D. Rush, Opt. Commun. 69, 45 (1988).
[Crossref]

Rush, J. D.

C. S. Winter, S. N. Oliver, J. D. Rush, Opt. Commun. 69, 45 (1988).
[Crossref]

Saruwatari, M.

T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1186 (1988).
[Crossref]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507 (1964).
[Crossref]

Seaton, C. T.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
[Crossref]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Vol. III, p. 259.

Stegeman, G. I.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
[Crossref]

Stolen, R. H.

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507 (1964).
[Crossref]

Trillo, S.

P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, S.

P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
[Crossref]

B. Daino, G. Gregori, S. Wabnitz, Opt. Lett. 11, 43 (1986).
[Crossref]

Weidman, D. L.

Weinberger, D. A.

Winful, H. G.

Winter, C. S.

C. S. Winter, S. N. Oliver, J. D. Rush, Opt. Commun. 69, 45 (1988).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, R. H. Stolen, G. Assanto, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1224 (1986).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. Finlayson, B. K. Nayar, N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 27, 1209 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. Ferro, M. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, B. Daino, Electron. Lett. 27, 1408 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. (1)

T. Morioka, M. Saruwatari, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 6, 1186 (1988).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. S. Winter, S. N. Oliver, J. D. Rush, Opt. Commun. 69, 45 (1988).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507 (1964).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. Kashyap, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 682, 170 (1986).

Other (1)

W. L. Smith, in CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Weber, ed. (CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Vol. III, p. 259.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout for the observation of polarization coupling and instabilities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

V polarization as a function of the input azimuth polarization angle for three arbitary powers: (a) theory with power in arbitary units and (b) experiment with peak powers indicated in watts. The ratio of powers for the two theoretical nonlinear cases [the two upper traces in (a)] is 5, the same as that used in the measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

V and H polarizations as a function of the launched power. (a) Inset is the theoretical cw response, and the large graph shows the theoretical pulsed response with an azimuth angle of 70°. (b) Experimental results for pulsed input with an azimuth angle of 60°.

Equations (1)

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d c + d z = i k c + i β | c | 2 c + , d c d z = i k c + + i β | c + | 2 c ,

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