Abstract

A fiber-optic frequency shifter utilizing a traveling torsional acoustic wave to couple the polarization eigenmodes of a highly linearly birefringent optical fiber is demonstrated. The frequency-shifter configuration is such that the acoustic-wave generator and optical fiber are coaxial. The device is thus more rugged than previous free-fiber frequency shifters, which have incorporated a T junction between the acoustic generator and optical fiber. The optical frequency shift was 3.204 MHz, and an optical coupling efficiency of 12% was obtained with 4 W of electrical drive power applied to the acoustic transducer.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. A. Jackson, J. D. C. Jones, Opt. Acta 33, 1469 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Ultrasonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), paper AO-5.
  3. J. Ji, D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, Electron. Lett. 22, 1141 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 389 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. N. Pannell, R. P. Tatam, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. 58, 592 (1988).
  6. C. Yijian, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, 491 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Greenhalgh, A. Foord, P. A. Davies, in Proceedings of Fibres ’90 (International Society of Optical Engineering, London, 1990), paper 8.
  8. M. Berwick, C. N. Pannell, P. St. J. Russell, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 27, 713 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. N. Pannell, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Kent, Canterbury, 1988).
  10. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

1991 (1)

M. Berwick, C. N. Pannell, P. St. J. Russell, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 27, 713 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Yijian, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. N. Pannell, R. P. Tatam, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. 58, 592 (1988).

1987 (1)

D. A. Jackson, J. D. C. Jones, Opt. Acta 33, 1469 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

Berwick, M.

M. Berwick, C. N. Pannell, P. St. J. Russell, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 27, 713 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J. N.

Culshaw, B.

J. Ji, D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, Electron. Lett. 22, 1141 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Davies, P. A.

P. Greenhalgh, A. Foord, P. A. Davies, in Proceedings of Fibres ’90 (International Society of Optical Engineering, London, 1990), paper 8.

Engan, H. E.

Foord, A.

P. Greenhalgh, A. Foord, P. A. Davies, in Proceedings of Fibres ’90 (International Society of Optical Engineering, London, 1990), paper 8.

Greenhalgh, P.

P. Greenhalgh, A. Foord, P. A. Davies, in Proceedings of Fibres ’90 (International Society of Optical Engineering, London, 1990), paper 8.

Jackson, D. A.

M. Berwick, C. N. Pannell, P. St. J. Russell, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 27, 713 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Pannell, R. P. Tatam, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. 58, 592 (1988).

D. A. Jackson, J. D. C. Jones, Opt. Acta 33, 1469 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ji, J.

J. Ji, D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, Electron. Lett. 22, 1141 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

C. N. Pannell, R. P. Tatam, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. 58, 592 (1988).

D. A. Jackson, J. D. C. Jones, Opt. Acta 33, 1469 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

Kino, G. S.

W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Ultrasonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), paper AO-5.

Pannell, C. N.

M. Berwick, C. N. Pannell, P. St. J. Russell, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 27, 713 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. N. Pannell, R. P. Tatam, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. 58, 592 (1988).

C. N. Pannell, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Kent, Canterbury, 1988).

Risk, W. P.

W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Ultrasonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), paper AO-5.

Russell, P. St. J.

M. Berwick, C. N. Pannell, P. St. J. Russell, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 27, 713 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, H. E. Engan, H. J. Shaw, Opt. Lett. 11, 389 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Ultrasonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), paper AO-5.

Tatam, R. P.

C. N. Pannell, R. P. Tatam, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. 58, 592 (1988).

Uttam, D.

J. Ji, D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, Electron. Lett. 22, 1141 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yijian, C.

C. Yijian, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Youngquist, R. C.

W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Ultrasonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), paper AO-5.

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Ji, D. Uttam, B. Culshaw, Electron. Lett. 22, 1141 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Berwick, C. N. Pannell, P. St. J. Russell, D. A. Jackson, Electron. Lett. 27, 713 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. (1)

C. N. Pannell, R. P. Tatam, J. D. C. Jones, D. A. Jackson, J. Inst. Electron. Radio Eng. 58, 592 (1988).

Opt. Acta (1)

D. A. Jackson, J. D. C. Jones, Opt. Acta 33, 1469 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Yijian, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, 491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Greenhalgh, A. Foord, P. A. Davies, in Proceedings of Fibres ’90 (International Society of Optical Engineering, London, 1990), paper 8.

C. N. Pannell, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Kent, Canterbury, 1988).

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

W. P. Risk, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, R. C. Youngquist, in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Sonics and Ultrasonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1984), paper AO-5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of coaxial torsional-wave fiber frequency shifter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Arrangement of the piezoelectric transducers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shifter evaluation configuration. S, optical source; GT, Glan–Thompson polarizer; BS1, BS2, beam splitters; L, lens; λ/2, half-wave plate; TFS, torsional-wave fiber frequency shifter; DE, drive electronics; M1, M2, mirrors; AOM, acousto-optic modulator (Bragg cell); PD, photodetector; P, polarizer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output spectra: acousto-optic coupling from (a) slow to fast axis equals a downshift, (b) fast to slow axis equals an upshift. Resolution bandwidth 30 kHz.

Equations (2)

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P ( z ) = | A 2 ( z ) A 1 ( 0 ) | 2 = sin 2 ( κ z ) ,
κ 2 π θ L B ,

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