Abstract

We present observations that demonstrate a technique for the generation of trains of dark solitons. The technique consists of the nonlinear copropagation of two delayed visible pulses in a long optical fiber. Single-shot streak-camera temporal images depict the formation of trains of dark solitons with picosecond widths. Single-shot spectra are also observed and depict ringing around spectral holes, which is characteristic of dark solitons on a chirped background pulse. Good agreement is found between theory and both temporal and spectral measurements.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118 (1971) [Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972)].
  2. V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973)].
  3. A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Hasegawa, Opt. Lett. 9, 288 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. E. M. Dianov, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, S. V. Chernikov, Opt. Lett. 14, 1008 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. E. Rothenberg, Opt. Commun. 82, 107 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. E. Rothenberg, Opt. Lett. 15, 443 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. S. Kivshar, V. V. Afanasjev, Opt. Lett. 16, 285 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

1988 (2)

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1973 (3)

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973)].

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118 (1971) [Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972)].

Afanasjev, V. V.

Barthelemy, A.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chernikov, S. V.

Dianov, E. M.

Emplit, P.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Froehly, C.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Giuliani, G.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamaide, J. P.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa, Opt. Lett. 9, 288 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, R. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heritage, J. P.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirschner, E. M.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Krokel, D.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mamyshev, P. V.

Prokhorov, A. M.

Reynaud, F.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Shabat, A. B.

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973)].

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118 (1971) [Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972)].

Tappert, F.

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[Crossref]

Thurston, R. N.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakharov, V. E.

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973)].

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118 (1971) [Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972)].

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142 (1973).
[Crossref]

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 171 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. E. Rothenberg, Opt. Commun. 82, 107 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (2)

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118 (1971) [Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 62 (1972)].

V. E. Zakharov, A. B. Shabat, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823 (1973)].

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculation of the copropagation of two 250-W input pulses in an optical fiber for the indicated distances. The time scale varies as indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus used to measure the dark-soliton single-shot intensity and spectra. The spectrograph is bypassed for the temporal measurements, and the streak camera is operated only as a single-shot gated intensifier for the spectral measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated streak image data, raw (dotted curves) and smoothed (solid curves), of the fiber output intensity for the copropagation of two input pulses with peak powers of (a), (b) 500 W and (c) 100 W and separated by (a) 5 ps, (b) 6.5 ps, and (c) 8 ps. The baseline corresponds to zero intensity. (d) Calculation using the NLSE with the parameters of (c) (dotted curve) and including the effects of resolution (solid curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Calculated spectrum of a fundamental dark soliton on a chirped background (dotted curve) and including the effects of resolution (solid curve), (b) Measured single-shot spectrum of the fiber output. The input pulses have peak power of 1000 W and a separation of 4 ps. (c) Integration of the NLSE for the parameters of (b). (d) Calculated spectrum of a 70% contrast dark soliton.

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E / z + i [ k ( 2 ) / 2 ] 2 E / t 2 = i n 2 k 0 | E | 2 E ,

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