Abstract

We describe a new technique for accurate measurement of absolute photoionization cross sections. By measuring the loss rate of atoms from a laser trap in the presence of ionizing light, we directly measure the photoionization rate. The only quantities requiring absolute calibration are the ionizing laser intensity and the fractional population in the relevant state. Our technique is capable of detecting extremely small ionization rates, which means that low-power cw sources can be used. We have applied this method to photoionization from the 5P3/2 state of rubidium at wavelengths of 413 and 407 nm. The cross sections are 1.36(12) × 10−17 and 1.25(11) × 10−17 cm2, respectively.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. J. Wuilleumier, D. L. Ederer, J. L. Picque, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1988), p. 197.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Lahiri, S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3151 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. See the feature issue on laser cooling and trapping of atoms, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2020–2278 (1989).
  4. N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. L. Gilbert, M. C. Noecker, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3150 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Puretsky, Appl. Phys. 9, 335 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Heinzmann, D. Schinkowski, H. D. Zeman, Appl. Phys. 12, 113 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. V. Smith, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. E. Nitz, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 22, 577 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. D. Bonin, M. Gatzke, C. L. Collins, M. A. Kadar-Kallen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5624 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. N. Watts, C. E. Wieman, Opt. Lett. 11, 291 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Even though the upper and lower levels have different degeneracies, the fact that all six trap laser beams are coherent (i.e., derived from the same laser), means that the polarization of the total field is well defined at all points. Therefore, the steady-state excited-state fraction will saturate to 1/2.
  15. J. Javanainen, “Saturation of multistate atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
  16. A. N. Klyucharev, V. Y. Sepman, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 712 (1975).
  17. Y. V. Moskvin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 15, 316 (1963).
  18. B. N. Chichkov, V. P. Shevelko, Phys. Scr. 23, 1055 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Aymar, O. Robaux, S. Wane, J. Phys. B 17, 993 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Wane, J. Phys. B 18, 3881 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Kurosu, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2127 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.
  25. F. Shimizu, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2758 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. Katori, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2124 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

T. Kurosu, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2124 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (5)

F. Shimizu, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2758 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Bonin, M. Gatzke, C. L. Collins, M. A. Kadar-Kallen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5624 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See the feature issue on laser cooling and trapping of atoms, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2020–2278 (1989).

N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

1985 (1)

S. Wane, J. Phys. B 18, 3881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

S. L. Gilbert, M. C. Noecker, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, O. Robaux, S. Wane, J. Phys. B 17, 993 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

B. N. Chichkov, V. P. Shevelko, Phys. Scr. 23, 1055 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. V. Smith, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. E. Nitz, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 22, 577 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

U. Heinzmann, D. Schinkowski, H. D. Zeman, Appl. Phys. 12, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Puretsky, Appl. Phys. 9, 335 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. N. Klyucharev, V. Y. Sepman, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 712 (1975).

1963 (1)

Y. V. Moskvin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 15, 316 (1963).

Ambartzumian, R. V.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Puretsky, Appl. Phys. 9, 335 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, P. S.

N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Aymar, M.

M. Aymar, O. Robaux, S. Wane, J. Phys. B 17, 993 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bardou, F.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Bonin, K. D.

K. D. Bonin, M. Gatzke, C. L. Collins, M. A. Kadar-Kallen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5624 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkhardt, C. E.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, V. P. Shevelko, Phys. Scr. 23, 1055 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Collins, C. L.

K. D. Bonin, M. Gatzke, C. L. Collins, M. A. Kadar-Kallen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5624 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courty, J.-M.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Dinneen, T. P.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ederer, D. L.

F. J. Wuilleumier, D. L. Ederer, J. L. Picque, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1988), p. 197.
[CrossRef]

Emile, O.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Furzikov, N. P.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Puretsky, Appl. Phys. 9, 335 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gatzke, M.

K. D. Bonin, M. Gatzke, C. L. Collins, M. A. Kadar-Kallen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5624 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerz, C.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Gilbert, S. L.

S. L. Gilbert, M. C. Noecker, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

A. V. Smith, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. E. Nitz, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 22, 577 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gould, P. L.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grove, T. T.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

U. Heinzmann, D. Schinkowski, H. D. Zeman, Appl. Phys. 12, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Javanainen, J.

J. Javanainen, “Saturation of multistate atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Kadar-Kallen, M. A.

K. D. Bonin, M. Gatzke, C. L. Collins, M. A. Kadar-Kallen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5624 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katori, H.

H. Katori, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2124 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. D.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyucharev, A. N.

A. N. Klyucharev, V. Y. Sepman, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 712 (1975).

Kurosu, T.

T. Kurosu, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, N.

N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lahiri, J.

J. Lahiri, S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, D. J.

N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letokhov, V. S.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Puretsky, Appl. Phys. 9, 335 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Leventhal, J. J.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libbert, J. L.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Manson, S. T.

J. Lahiri, S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskvin, Y. V.

Y. V. Moskvin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 15, 316 (1963).

Nitz, D. E.

A. V. Smith, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. E. Nitz, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 22, 577 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Noecker, M. C.

S. L. Gilbert, M. C. Noecker, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, T.

N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Picque, J. L.

F. J. Wuilleumier, D. L. Ederer, J. L. Picque, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1988), p. 197.
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M. G.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puretsky, A. A.

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Puretsky, Appl. Phys. 9, 335 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robaux, O.

M. Aymar, O. Robaux, S. Wane, J. Phys. B 17, 993 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schinkowski, D.

U. Heinzmann, D. Schinkowski, H. D. Zeman, Appl. Phys. 12, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sepman, V. Y.

A. N. Klyucharev, V. Y. Sepman, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 712 (1975).

Sesko, D.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevelko, V. P.

B. N. Chichkov, V. P. Shevelko, Phys. Scr. 23, 1055 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, F.

Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2124 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurosu, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Shimizu, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2758 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Shimizu, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2758 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silvera, I.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Smith, A. V.

A. V. Smith, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. E. Nitz, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 22, 577 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. J.

A. V. Smith, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. E. Nitz, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 22, 577 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Takuma, H.

Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Shimizu, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2758 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, K. Y. N.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trainham, R.

N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, T.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, C. D.

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wane, S.

S. Wane, J. Phys. B 18, 3881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Aymar, O. Robaux, S. Wane, J. Phys. B 17, 993 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. N.

Westbrook, C.

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

Wieman, C.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

R. N. Watts, C. E. Wieman, Opt. Lett. 11, 291 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Gilbert, M. C. Noecker, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wuilleumier, F. J.

F. J. Wuilleumier, D. L. Ederer, J. L. Picque, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1988), p. 197.
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeman, H. D.

U. Heinzmann, D. Schinkowski, H. D. Zeman, Appl. Phys. 12, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, M.

Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (2)

R. V. Ambartzumian, N. P. Furzikov, V. S. Letokhov, A. A. Puretsky, Appl. Phys. 9, 335 (1976).
[CrossRef]

U. Heinzmann, D. Schinkowski, H. D. Zeman, Appl. Phys. 12, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (2)

M. Aymar, O. Robaux, S. Wane, J. Phys. B 17, 993 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Wane, J. Phys. B 18, 3881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Z. Lin, K. Shimizu, M. Zhan, F. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1324 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurosu, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2127 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Katori, F. Shimizu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2124 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (2)

A. N. Klyucharev, V. Y. Sepman, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 712 (1975).

Y. V. Moskvin, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 15, 316 (1963).

Phys. Rev. A (7)

N. Kwon, P. S. Armstrong, T. Olsson, R. Trainham, D. J. Larson, Phys. Rev. A 40, 676 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Gilbert, M. C. Noecker, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 29, 3150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Lahiri, S. T. Manson, Phys. Rev. A 33, 3151 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith, J. E. M. Goldsmith, D. E. Nitz, S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 22, 577 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Burkhardt, J. L. Libbert, J. Xu, J. J. Leventhal, J. D. Kelly, Phys. Rev. A 38, 5949 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Bonin, M. Gatzke, C. L. Collins, M. A. Kadar-Kallen, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5624 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shimizu, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2758 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Wallace, T. P. Dinneen, K. Y. N. Tan, T. T. Grove, P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 897 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

B. N. Chichkov, V. P. Shevelko, Phys. Scr. 23, 1055 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Even though the upper and lower levels have different degeneracies, the fact that all six trap laser beams are coherent (i.e., derived from the same laser), means that the polarization of the total field is well defined at all points. Therefore, the steady-state excited-state fraction will saturate to 1/2.

J. Javanainen, “Saturation of multistate atoms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

F. J. Wuilleumier, D. L. Ederer, J. L. Picque, in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D. Bates, B. Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1988), p. 197.
[CrossRef]

C. Westbrook, A. Aspect, F. Bardou, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J.-M. Courty, O. Emile, C. Gerz, I. Silvera, in Tenth International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 48.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the magneto-optical trap. The six circularly polarized (σr+ and σ) trap beams intersect at the origin, where the magnetic field (axial gradient 5 G/cm) from the two coils (current i) vanishes. The trap is loaded with cold atoms from the laser-slowed atomic beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical decay of atoms (measured by fluorescence) from the trap owing to photoionization. The arrow indicates the point at which the ionizing laser is switched on. The solid curve is an exponential fit (Rp = 3.85 s−1) to the data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ionization rate (Rp) and excited-state fraction (f) versus trap laser intensity for 85Rb. The fit to Eq. (2) (solid curve) calibrates the f axis. Error bars are approximately the size of the points. The ionizing laser (λ = 413 nm) intensity is fixed at Ip = 1.1 W/cm2.

Equations (2)

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R p = I p h ν σ f ,
f = I t / I s 2 I t / I s + 4 ( Δ / Γ ) 2 + 1 ,

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