Abstract

The changes in refractive index, optical absorption, and volume of synthetic fused silica resulting from the implantation of germanium and silicon ions at energies of 3 and 5 MeV are reported. Implantation changes the density and generates ultraviolet color centers in the silica, which increases the refractive index at visible wavelengths by ∼1%. Irradiation of the implanted samples with 249-nm light from a KrF excimer laser photobleaches the color centers and reduces the index by more than 0.1%. Photobleaching is used to write a 4.3-μm pitch diffraction grating in the implanted silica.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. W. Arnold, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 220 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. D. Townsend, Rep. Prog. Phys. 50, 501 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 17, 532 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).
  8. D. L. Griscomb, in The Physics of SiO2 and Its Interfaces, S. T. Pantelides, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1978).
  9. R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Garbuny, Optical Physics (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 269–277.
  14. E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
    [Crossref]

1992 (2)

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. M. Williams, D. A. Dutt, J. A. Ruller, E. J. Friebele, Opt. Lett. 17, 532 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

P. D. Townsend, Rep. Prog. Phys. 50, 501 (1987).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

G. W. Arnold, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 220 (1973).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, G. W.

G. W. Arnold, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 220 (1973).
[Crossref]

Atkins, G. R.

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
[Crossref]

Barbier, D.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[Crossref]

Biersack, J. P.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Bilodeau, F.

Brebner, J. L.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

Dutt, D. A.

EerNisse, E. P.

E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ehrlich, D. J.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E. J.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Garbuny, M.

M. Garbuny, Optical Physics (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 269–277.

Green, M.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[Crossref]

Griscomb, D. L.

D. L. Griscomb, in The Physics of SiO2 and Its Interfaces, S. T. Pantelides, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1978).

Hama, Y.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kajrys, G.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Littmark, U.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Madden, S. J.

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[Crossref]

Malo, B.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, K. A. Vineberg, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Opt. Lett. 15, 953 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizuno, H.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nagasawa, K.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nockolds, C. E.

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ohki, Y.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Poole, S. B.

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rothschild, M.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ruller, J. A.

Sasagane, K.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sceats, M. G.

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shaver, D. C.

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[Crossref]

Simmons, H. W.

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tohmon, R.

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, Rep. Prog. Phys. 50, 501 (1987).
[Crossref]

Trudeau, Y. B.

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

Vineberg, K. A.

Williams, G. M.

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Rothschild, D. J. Ehrlich, D. C. Shaver, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1276 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Albert, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, D. C. Johnson, J. L. Brebner, Y. B. Trudeau, G. Kajrys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 148 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, M. G. Sceats, H. W. Simmons, C. E. Nockolds, Electron. Lett. 27, 1432 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Barbier, M. Green, S. J. Madden, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 715 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

G. W. Arnold, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 220 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. P. EerNisse, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 167 (1974).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagasawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. D. Townsend, Rep. Prog. Phys. 50, 501 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

D. L. Griscomb, in The Physics of SiO2 and Its Interfaces, S. T. Pantelides, ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1978).

M. Garbuny, Optical Physics (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 269–277.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

trim simulation of dopant ion concentration and induced displacements for 5-MeV Ge implantation in synthetic fused silica.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical UV absorption spectrum induced by the implantation (solid curve) and after several stages of optical bleaching with 110-mJ/cm2 pulses at 50 pulses/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of Δn in implanted samples during UV exposure.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Measurements and of trim Results

Equations (1)

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Δ n = Δ n α [ ( n 2 1 ) ( n 2 + 2 ) / 6 n ] ( Δ V / V ) .

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