Abstract

Second-order hyperpolarizibilities γ of the buckminsterfullerenes C70 at three different wavelengths were determined by third-harmonic generation in a toluene solution and compared with those of C60. Strong effects with γ exceeding 5 × 10−32 esu were observed in the three-photon resonant regime. The nonresonant measurements indicate a negative real hyperpolarizibility in C70 and a positive γ for C60, both of the order of 10−33 esu.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. J. Knize, J. P. Partanen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2704 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Wang, L.-T. Cheng, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 1530 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Harigaya, S. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L887 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. V. Nair, K. C. Rustagi, “Electronic states in C60 in a nearly free electron model,” presented at Solid State Physics Symposium, 1992.
  9. W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropolos, D. R. Huffman, Nature (London) 346, 354 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. Kajzar, J. Messier, Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, NATO ASI Series, Series E, Vol. 162 (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 225–246.

1992 (5)

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Knize, J. P. Partanen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2704 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L.-T. Cheng, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 1530 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Harigaya, S. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L887 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropolos, D. R. Huffman, Nature (London) 346, 354 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abe, S.

K. Harigaya, S. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L887 (1992).
[Crossref]

Achiba, Y.

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

Baroli, F. J.

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bubeck, C.

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[Crossref]

Byrne, H. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardin, D. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, L.-T.

Y. Wang, L.-T. Cheng, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 1530 (1992).
[Crossref]

Dennis, T. J.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fostiropolos, K.

W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropolos, D. R. Huffman, Nature (London) 346, 354 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hare, J. P.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harigaya, K.

K. Harigaya, S. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L887 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hoshi, H.

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huffman, D. R.

W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropolos, D. R. Huffman, Nature (London) 346, 354 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kafafi, Z. H.

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajazar, F.

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, NATO ASI Series, Series E, Vol. 162 (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 225–246.

Knize, R. J.

R. J. Knize, J. P. Partanen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2704 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krätschmer, W.

W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropolos, D. R. Huffman, Nature (London) 346, 354 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kroto, H. W.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamb, L. D.

W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropolos, D. R. Huffman, Nature (London) 346, 354 (1990).
[Crossref]

Leclerc, M.

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lindle, J. R.

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lingg, L. J.

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Messier, J.

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miliken, J.

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, S. V.

S. V. Nair, K. C. Rustagi, “Electronic states in C60 in a nearly free electron model,” presented at Solid State Physics Symposium, 1992.

Nakagawa, T.

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, N.

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

Neher, D.

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[Crossref]

Partanen, J. P.

R. J. Knize, J. P. Partanen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2704 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pong, R. G. S.

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiang, D.

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rustagi, K. C.

S. V. Nair, K. C. Rustagi, “Electronic states in C60 in a nearly free electron model,” presented at Solid State Physics Symposium, 1992.

Shiromaru, H.

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. I.

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torruellas, W. E.

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Walton, D. R. M.

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, L.-T. Cheng, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 1530 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wegner, G.

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wolf, A.

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[Crossref]

Xia, Z.

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, R.

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

Z. H. Kafafi, J. R. Lindle, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Baroli, L. J. Lingg, J. Miliken, Chem. Phys. Lett. 188, 492 (1992);Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2705 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. E. Torruellas, D. Neher, R. Zanoni, G. I. Stegeman, F. Kajazar, M. Leclerc, Chem. Phys. Lett. 175, 11 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. Neher, A. Wolf, C. Bubeck, G. Wegner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 163, 116 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Gong, Y. Sun, Z. Xia, Y. Zou, Z. Gu, X. Zhou, D. Qiang, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3025 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. Wang, L.-T. Cheng, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 1530 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Harigaya, S. Abe, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L887 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Hoshi, N. Nakamura, T. Nakagawa, S. Suzuki, H. Shiromaru, Y. Achiba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L1397 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropolos, D. R. Huffman, Nature (London) 346, 354 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Kajzar, J. Messier, Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

W. J. Blau, H. J. Byrne, D. J. Cardin, T. J. Dennis, J. P. Hare, H. W. Kroto, R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1423 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Knize, J. P. Partanen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2704 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. V. Nair, K. C. Rustagi, “Electronic states in C60 in a nearly free electron model,” presented at Solid State Physics Symposium, 1992.

F. Kajzar, in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, NATO ASI Series, Series E, Vol. 162 (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 225–246.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption spectra of C60 (solid curve) and C70 (dashed curve) in toluene.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total [χ(3)]2 versus concentration for C60 in toluene relative to the reference value of fused silica. The data points at c = 0 shown on the right side of the graphs are taken from the control measurements on pure toluene as explained in the text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total [χ(3)]2 versus concentration for C70 in toluene.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nonlinear Parameters Obtained by Fitting the Measured Concentration Dependence of |χ(3)|2 in Figs. 2 and 3 to Eq. (3)a

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ ( 3 ) ( c ) = χ T ( 3 ) + c f γ .
γ = Re ( γ ) + i Im ( γ ) .
| χ 3 ( c ) 2 | = [ χ T ( 3 ) ] 2 + 2 c χ T ( 3 ) f Re ( γ ) + c 2 f 2 [ Re 2 ( γ ) + Im 2 ( γ ) ] .
γ = 1 5 ( γ xxxx + γ yyyy + γ zzzz + 2 γ xxyy + 2 γ yyzz ) .
χ T ( 3 ) / χ SiO 2 ( 1 )

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