Abstract

We present results that demonstrate the proof of principle of a soft-x-ray reflection imaging microscope in the Schwarzschild configuration. A soft-x-ray laser operating at 18.2 nm was used as the x-ray source. Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with a normal-incidence reflectivity of ~20% per surface at 18.2-nm wavelength were used in the Schwarzschild objective.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. M. Ceglio, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989); M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, Sci. Am. 264(2), 88 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Frank, B. Gale, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 81 (1985).
  3. R. H. Price, AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 189 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Guttman, in X-ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 75.
  5. B. Lai, F. Cerrina, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 174 (1985).
  6. R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 331.
  7. M. Kado, K. A. Tanaka, R. Kodama, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, Opt. Lett. 16, 109 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. W. Berreman, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, M. L. O’Malley, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, Opt. Lett. 15, 529 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, R. Rosser, “Soft x-ray reflection microscope” (U.S. patent pending).
  12. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. T. R. Optics Ltd., 16 Queen’s Road, Brentwood, Essex, CM14 4HE, England.
  14. N. M. Ceglio, Advanced Optics Group, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication).

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

D. W. Berreman, J. E. Bjorkholm, L. Eichner, R. R. Freeman, T. E. Jewell, W. M. Mansfield, A. A. MacDowell, M. L. O’Malley, E. L. Raab, W. T. Silfvast, L. H. Szeto, D. M. Tennant, W. K. Waskiewicz, D. L. White, D. L. Windt, O. R. Wood, J. H. Bruning, Opt. Lett. 15, 529 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

J. A. Trail, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 14, 539 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Ceglio, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989); M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, Sci. Am. 264(2), 88 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

A. Frank, B. Gale, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 81 (1985).

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lai, F. Cerrina, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 174 (1985).

1981 (1)

R. H. Price, AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 189 (1981).
[Crossref]

Berreman, D. W.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bruning, J. H.

Byer, R. L.

Ceglio, N. M.

N. M. Ceglio, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989); M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, Sci. Am. 264(2), 88 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Ceglio, Advanced Optics Group, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication).

Cerrina, F.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. Lai, F. Cerrina, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 174 (1985).

Chen, G.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cole, R. K.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Crossley, D.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Crossley, S.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eichner, L.

Frank, A.

A. Frank, B. Gale, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 81 (1985).

Freeman, R. R.

Gale, B.

A. Frank, B. Gale, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 81 (1985).

Green, M.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Guttman, P.

P. Guttman, in X-ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 75.

Hansen, R. W. C.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Jewell, T. E.

Kado, M.

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kingslake, R.

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 331.

Kodama, R.

Korthright, J.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lai, B.

B. Lai, F. Cerrina, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 174 (1985).

MacDowell, A. A.

Mansfield, W. M.

Margaritondo, G.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakai, S.

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

O’Malley, M. L.

Perera, R. C. C.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Price, R. H.

R. H. Price, AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 189 (1981).
[Crossref]

Raab, E. L.

Ray-Chaudhuri, A. K.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rosser, R.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, R. Rosser, “Soft x-ray reflection microscope” (U.S. patent pending).

Silfvast, W. T.

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, R. Rosser, “Soft x-ray reflection microscope” (U.S. patent pending).

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, R. Rosser, “Soft x-ray reflection microscope” (U.S. patent pending).

Szeto, L. H.

Tanaka, K. A.

Tennant, D. M.

Trail, J. A.

Underwood, J. H.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Voorhees, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, J.

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

White, D. L.

Windt, D. L.

Wood, O. R.

Yamanaka, T.

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

R. H. Price, AIP Conf. Proc. 75, 189 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. X-ray Sci. Technol. (1)

N. M. Ceglio, J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 1, 7 (1989); M. R. Howells, J. Kirz, D. Sayre, Sci. Am. 264(2), 88 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753 (1985); S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, D. Kim, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, A. Wouters, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1004 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

W. Ng, A. K. Ray-Chaudhuri, R. K. Cole, J. Wallace, S. Crossley, D. Crossley, G. Chen, M. Green, J. Guo, R. W. C. Hansen, F. Cerrina, G. Margaritondo, J. H. Underwood, J. Korthright, R. C. C. Perera, Phys. Scr. 41, 758 (1990); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 2563 (1990); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 294, 351 (1990).
[Crossref]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

A. Frank, B. Gale, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 81 (1985).

B. Lai, F. Cerrina, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 563, 174 (1985).

Other (5)

R. Kingslake, Lens Design Fundamentals (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 331.

T. R. Optics Ltd., 16 Queen’s Road, Brentwood, Essex, CM14 4HE, England.

N. M. Ceglio, Advanced Optics Group, Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (personal communication).

P. Guttman, in X-ray Microscopy, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), p. 75.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, R. Rosser, “Soft x-ray reflection microscope” (U.S. patent pending).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout in the transmission imaging configuration. The Schwarzschild mirror system was tilted at 15° off axis because the numerical aperture of the focusing ellipsoidal mirror is smaller than that of the central obstruction of the Schwarzschild mirror system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of image of a TEM #400 copper grid with a magnification of 22 recorded on Kodak 101-07 x-ray film in the transmission imaging configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Densitometer scan of the image shown in Fig. 3. A spatial resolution of 0.7 μm is demonstrated at 25–75% contrast.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental layout in the reflection imaging configuration. The angle between the reflection surface and the incident beam is set to be 20°. The Schwarzschild mirror system was tilted at 15° off axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of image of a reflection object in the reflection imaging configuration. The reflection object was constructed by evaporating gold onto a polished glass surface through a TEM #200 grid. The image was recorded on Kodak 101-07 x-ray film. The dark lines represent the glass part of the reflection object, while the white areas represent the gold part. The magnification was 16 in this case.

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