Abstract

A new form of pitchfork-bifurcation-like polarization bistability in laser diodes that has major speed advantages over conventional S-shaped polarization bistability is reported. From the rate-equation analysis, it is shown that flip-flop operation with bit rates of higher than 50 Gbits/s may be achieved.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).
  2. Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, S93 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Shoji, Y. Arakawa, Y. Fujii, Electron. Lett. 24, 888 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Ozeki, J. E. Johnson, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1958 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Ozeki, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2214 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1406 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. L. Tang, A. Schremer, T. Fujita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1392 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 291.
  10. T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S47 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1365 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. M. Yu, J. M. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7444 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. See, for example, R. Frankenberger, R. Schimpe, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 216.
  14. See, for example, J. E. Bowers, Solid-State Electron. 30, 1 (1987).
    [Crossref]

1991 (4)

Y. Ozeki, J. E. Johnson, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1958 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Ozeki, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2214 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
[Crossref]

B. M. Yu, J. M. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7444 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S47 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. Shoji, Y. Arakawa, Y. Fujii, Electron. Lett. 24, 888 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (4)

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1406 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. L. Tang, A. Schremer, T. Fujita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1392 (1987).
[Crossref]

See, for example, J. E. Bowers, Solid-State Electron. 30, 1 (1987).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, S93 (1987).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1365 (1983).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

H. Shoji, Y. Arakawa, Y. Fujii, Electron. Lett. 24, 888 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

See, for example, J. E. Bowers, Solid-State Electron. 30, 1 (1987).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1406 (1987).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, S93 (1987).
[Crossref]

Frankenberger, R.

See, for example, R. Frankenberger, R. Schimpe, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 216.

Fujii, Y.

H. Shoji, Y. Arakawa, Y. Fujii, Electron. Lett. 24, 888 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

C. L. Tang, A. Schremer, T. Fujita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1392 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gottschalch, V.

B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
[Crossref]

Johnson, J. E.

Y. Ozeki, J. E. Johnson, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1958 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 291.

Klehr, A.

B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. M.

B. M. Yu, J. M. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7444 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1406 (1987).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, S93 (1987).
[Crossref]

Machida, T.

T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).

Mukai, T.

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S47 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 291.

Nobuhara, H.

T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).

Odagawa, T.

T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).

Oelgart, G.

B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
[Crossref]

Okazaki, N.

T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Ozeki, J. E. Johnson, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1958 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Ozeki, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2214 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rheinländer, B.

B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, T.

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S47 (1989).
[Crossref]

Schimpe, R.

See, for example, R. Frankenberger, R. Schimpe, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 216.

Schremer, A.

C. L. Tang, A. Schremer, T. Fujita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1392 (1987).
[Crossref]

Shoji, H.

H. Shoji, Y. Arakawa, Y. Fujii, Electron. Lett. 24, 888 (1988).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).

Tang, C. L.

Y. Ozeki, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2214 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Ozeki, J. E. Johnson, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1958 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. L. Tang, A. Schremer, T. Fujita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1392 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wakao, K.

T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1365 (1983).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 291.

Yu, B. M.

B. M. Yu, J. M. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7444 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ziemann, O.

B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Ozeki, J. E. Johnson, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1958 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Ozeki, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2214 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1406 (1987).
[Crossref]

C. L. Tang, A. Schremer, T. Fujita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1392 (1987).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Shoji, Y. Arakawa, Y. Fujii, Electron. Lett. 24, 888 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1365 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. M. Yu, J. M. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 7444 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Rheinländer, A. Klehr, O. Ziemann, V. Gottschalch, G. Oelgart, Opt. Commun. 80, 259 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. C. Chen, J. M. Liu, Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, S93 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, Opt. Quantum Electron. 21, S47 (1989).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

See, for example, J. E. Bowers, Solid-State Electron. 30, 1 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

See, for example, R. Frankenberger, R. Schimpe, in Digest of Conference on Quantum Electronics Laser Science (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 216.

T. Machida, T. Odagawa, K. Tanaka, H. Nobuhara, K. Wakao, N. Okazaki, in National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Hiroshima, Japan, 1990), p. 4-174 (in Japanese).

T. Mukai, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds. (Academic, New York, 1985), p. 291.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ordinary S-shaped bistability arising from the enhancement of the cross-saturation effect, with EE = MM = 1 × 10−18 cm3, EM = 2 × 10−17 cm3, and ME = 1.4 × 10−17 cm3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pitchfork-bifurcation-like bistability arising from the inherent intraband relaxation processes, with EE = MM = 1 × 10−17 cm3 and EM = ME = 2 × 10−17 cm3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated static optical input–output characteristics. The parameters are the same as for Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flip-flop operation in pitchfork-bifurcation-like polarization bistability.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Switching photon density Sw, the ratio Sw/SE, and the maximum repetition rate fmax of flip-flop operation versus the pump rate.

Equations (3)

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d n d t = P n τ s υ g g ( n ) ( 1 E E S E E M S M ) S E υ g g ( n ) ( 1 M E S E M M S M ) S M ,
d S E d t = υ g Γ E g ( n ) ( 1 E E S E E M S M ) S E S E τ p E + β B n 2 ,
d S M d t = υ g Γ M g ( n ) ( 1 M E S E M M S M ) S M S M τ p M + β B n 2 ,

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