Abstract

We report the beam-coupling properties of a cobalt-doped oxygen-reduced n-type barium titanate crystal in the 0° and 45° crystallographic orientations. Oxygen reduction improved the response time of the 0°-cut crystal by a factor of ~4.5 without diminishing the beam-coupling gain. The 45°-cut crystal has a peak gain of ~38.7 cm−1, a response time of ~21 ms, and a photorefractive sensitivity of 3.44 cm3/kJ. We infer from response time measurements an equivalent percentage change in the dc dielectric constant and the mobility with respect to crystallographic orientation.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. R. Johnson, J. M. Weingart, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 828 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 28, 4808 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. D. Ewbank, R. A. Vazquez, R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, in Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper FS1.
  5. P. Yeh, Appl. Opt. 26, 6021987.
  6. D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Belruss, J. Kalnajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Ferroelectrics 120, 167 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Tayebati, D. Mahgerefteh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1053 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Hong, P. Yeh, D. Psaltis, D. Brady, Opt. Lett. 15, 344 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Feinberg, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, J.-P. Huignard, P. Günter, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).
  13. S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Measured by P. Tournois at MIT on nominally undoped BaTiO3. Also given by S. H. Wemple, M. Didomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
  16. C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Chang, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1987).
  18. The same conclusion was recently reported by D. Mahgerefteh, D. Kirillov, J. Feinberg, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MJ4.
  19. R. A. Vazquez, F. R. Vachss, R. R. Neurgaonkar, M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1932 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Determined by M. Zgonik at the Institute für Quantenelektronik, ETH-Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland. See also P. Günter, A. Krumins, Appl. Phys. 23, 199 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (3)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

1980 (1)

Determined by M. Zgonik at the Institute für Quantenelektronik, ETH-Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland. See also P. Günter, A. Krumins, Appl. Phys. 23, 199 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

V. Belruss, J. Kalnajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Measured by P. Tournois at MIT on nominally undoped BaTiO3. Also given by S. H. Wemple, M. Didomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Bacher, G. D.

M. D. Ewbank, R. A. Vazquez, R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, in Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper FS1.

Baer, W. S.

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Belruss, V.

V. Belruss, J. Kalnajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, C. N.

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D.

Camlibel, I.

Measured by P. Tournois at MIT on nominally undoped BaTiO3. Also given by S. H. Wemple, M. Didomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Ferroelectrics 120, 167 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

T. Chang, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1987).

Cudney, R. S.

M. D. Ewbank, R. A. Vazquez, R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, in Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper FS1.

Didomenico, M.

Measured by P. Tournois at MIT on nominally undoped BaTiO3. Also given by S. H. Wemple, M. Didomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ewbank, M. D.

R. A. Vazquez, F. R. Vachss, R. R. Neurgaonkar, M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1932 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ewbank, R. A. Vazquez, R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, in Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper FS1.

Fainman, Y.

Feinberg, J.

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ewbank, R. A. Vazquez, R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, in Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper FS1.

The same conclusion was recently reported by D. Mahgerefteh, D. Kirillov, J. Feinberg, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MJ4.

J. Feinberg, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, J.-P. Huignard, P. Günter, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).

Folweiler, R. C.

V. Belruss, J. Kalnajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

Garrett, M. H.

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Ferroelectrics 120, 167 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Determined by M. Zgonik at the Institute für Quantenelektronik, ETH-Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland. See also P. Günter, A. Krumins, Appl. Phys. 23, 199 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

Jenssen, H. P.

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Ferroelectrics 120, 167 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, A. R.

Kalnajs, J.

V. Belruss, J. Kalnajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kirillov, D.

The same conclusion was recently reported by D. Mahgerefteh, D. Kirillov, J. Feinberg, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MJ4.

Klein, M. B.

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Krumins, A.

Determined by M. Zgonik at the Institute für Quantenelektronik, ETH-Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland. See also P. Günter, A. Krumins, Appl. Phys. 23, 199 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Linz, A.

V. Belruss, J. Kalnajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Mahgerefteh, D.

P. Tayebati, D. Mahgerefteh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1053 (1991).
[CrossRef]

The same conclusion was recently reported by D. Mahgerefteh, D. Kirillov, J. Feinberg, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MJ4.

Mullen, R. A.

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, C. C.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

R. A. Vazquez, F. R. Vachss, R. R. Neurgaonkar, M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1932 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Rytz, D.

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R. N.

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tayebati, P.

Vachss, F. R.

Valley, G. C.

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Vazquez, R. A.

R. A. Vazquez, F. R. Vachss, R. R. Neurgaonkar, M. D. Ewbank, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1932 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Ewbank, R. A. Vazquez, R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, in Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper FS1.

Warde, C.

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Ferroelectrics 120, 167 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B. A.

D. Rytz, B. A. Wechsler, M. H. Garrett, C. C. Nelson, R. N. Schwartz, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2245 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Weingart, J. M.

Wemple, S. H.

Measured by P. Tournois at MIT on nominally undoped BaTiO3. Also given by S. H. Wemple, M. Didomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

Determined by M. Zgonik at the Institute für Quantenelektronik, ETH-Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switzerland. See also P. Günter, A. Krumins, Appl. Phys. 23, 199 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Rytz, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, R. N. Schwartz, G. C. Valley, B. A. Wechsler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1759 (1988); see also P. Günter, Phys. Rev. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Pepper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1001 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

M. H. Garrett, J. Y. Chang, H. P. Jenssen, C. Warde, Ferroelectrics 120, 167 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, R. R. Neurgaonkar, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2116 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

Measured by P. Tournois at MIT on nominally undoped BaTiO3. Also given by S. H. Wemple, M. Didomenico, I. Camlibel, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 1797 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

V. Belruss, J. Kalnajs, A. Linz, R. C. Folweiler, Mater. Res. Bull. 6, 899 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. N. Berglund, W. S. Baer, Phys. Rev. 157, 358 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Chang, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif., 1987).

The same conclusion was recently reported by D. Mahgerefteh, D. Kirillov, J. Feinberg, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper MJ4.

J. Feinberg, in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II, J.-P. Huignard, P. Günter, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989).

M. D. Ewbank, R. A. Vazquez, R. S. Cudney, G. D. Bacher, J. Feinberg, in Optical Society of America Annual Meeting, Vol. 15 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper FS1.

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Tables (2)

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Table 1 Predicted and Experimental Values of Coupling Coefficient γ at Grating Period Λg = 0.6 μm

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Table 2 Photorefractive Sensitivity of Various Oxides, S = γλ/4παIτ

Equations (1)

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γ = 2 π n 3 λ r eff cos ( θ i ) k B T e ( k g 1 + k g 2 / k 0 2 ) η ( I ) ( e 1 e 2 * ) .

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