Abstract

We demonstrate cw optical bistability at 1.06 μm using the large thermo-optical nonlinearity from the metal-semiconductor phase transition in a thin-film interference filter of vanadium dioxide. Highly stable and reproducible operation has been obtained. By biasing at the transition point, an all-optical external switching between the semiconducting and the metallic states has been demonstrated, with a contrast ratio of 15:1. The effective nonlinear index coefficient is n2 ≈ 1.6 cm2/W with a switching energy density of 135 pJ/μm2 and a speed of 15 ms. The tunability of the material properties of vanadium dioxide provides a means to make devices with a wide range of switching powers and speeds.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light With Light (Academic, New York, 1985).
  2. D. A. B. Miller, Laser Focus 18 (4), 79 (1982).
  3. D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).
  4. S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.
  6. See, for example, H. Huag, ed., Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1988), Chap. 12.
  7. J. B. Goodenough, J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  8. I. Balberg, B. Abeles, Y. Arie, J. Thin Solid Films 24, 307 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. M. Reyes, J. R. Marko, M. Sayer, Solid State Commun. 13, 1953 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. Balberg, W. R. Roach, in Proceedings of International Conference on Conduction in Low Mobility Materials (Taylor and Francis, London, 1971), p. 77.
  11. W. Paul, Mater. Res. Bull. 5, 691 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Gavini, C. C. Y. Kwan, Phys. Rev. B 5, 3138 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, C. N. Berlund, Phys. Rev. B 172, 788 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. A. Chudnovskii, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).
  15. D. I. Bilenko, V. A. Lodgauz, E. I. Khasina, Sov Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 1040 (1989).

1989 (1)

D. I. Bilenko, V. A. Lodgauz, E. I. Khasina, Sov Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 1040 (1989).

1984 (1)

S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, Laser Focus 18 (4), 79 (1982).

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

1976 (1)

F. A. Chudnovskii, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. M. Reyes, J. R. Marko, M. Sayer, Solid State Commun. 13, 1953 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

I. Balberg, B. Abeles, Y. Arie, J. Thin Solid Films 24, 307 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

A. Gavini, C. C. Y. Kwan, Phys. Rev. B 5, 3138 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

J. B. Goodenough, J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

W. Paul, Mater. Res. Bull. 5, 691 (1970).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, C. N. Berlund, Phys. Rev. B 172, 788 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abeles, B.

I. Balberg, B. Abeles, Y. Arie, J. Thin Solid Films 24, 307 (1974).
[Crossref]

Arie, Y.

I. Balberg, B. Abeles, Y. Arie, J. Thin Solid Films 24, 307 (1974).
[Crossref]

Balberg, I.

I. Balberg, B. Abeles, Y. Arie, J. Thin Solid Films 24, 307 (1974).
[Crossref]

I. Balberg, W. R. Roach, in Proceedings of International Conference on Conduction in Low Mobility Materials (Taylor and Francis, London, 1971), p. 77.

Barker, A. S.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, C. N. Berlund, Phys. Rev. B 172, 788 (1968).
[Crossref]

Berlund, C. N.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, C. N. Berlund, Phys. Rev. B 172, 788 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, D. I.

D. I. Bilenko, V. A. Lodgauz, E. I. Khasina, Sov Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 1040 (1989).

Chudnovskii, F. A.

F. A. Chudnovskii, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).

Gavini, A.

A. Gavini, C. C. Y. Kwan, Phys. Rev. B 5, 3138 (1972).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, H. M.

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light With Light (Academic, New York, 1985).

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Gigioli, G. C.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Goodenough, J. B.

J. B. Goodenough, J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490 (1971).
[Crossref]

Jin, R.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Khasina, E. I.

D. I. Bilenko, V. A. Lodgauz, E. I. Khasina, Sov Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 1040 (1989).

Kulkey, H.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Kwan, C. C. Y.

A. Gavini, C. C. Y. Kwan, Phys. Rev. B 5, 3138 (1972).
[Crossref]

Li, C. F.

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

Lodgauz, V. A.

D. I. Bilenko, V. A. Lodgauz, E. I. Khasina, Sov Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 1040 (1989).

Macleod, H. A.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Marko, J. R.

J. M. Reyes, J. R. Marko, M. Sayer, Solid State Commun. 13, 1953 (1975).
[Crossref]

Mathew, J. G. H.

S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, Laser Focus 18 (4), 79 (1982).

Olbright, G. R.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Paul, W.

W. Paul, Mater. Res. Bull. 5, 691 (1970).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Reyes, J. M.

J. M. Reyes, J. R. Marko, M. Sayer, Solid State Commun. 13, 1953 (1975).
[Crossref]

Roach, W. R.

I. Balberg, W. R. Roach, in Proceedings of International Conference on Conduction in Low Mobility Materials (Taylor and Francis, London, 1971), p. 77.

Rushford, M. C.

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

Sayer, M.

J. M. Reyes, J. R. Marko, M. Sayer, Solid State Commun. 13, 1953 (1975).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. D.

S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sprague, R. W.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[Crossref]

Verleur, H. W.

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, C. N. Berlund, Phys. Rev. B 172, 788 (1968).
[Crossref]

Walker, A. C.

S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Warren, M.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

Weinberger, D. A.

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

Wherrett, B. S.

S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

J. B. Goodenough, J. Solid State Chem. 3, 490 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Thin Solid Films (1)

I. Balberg, B. Abeles, Y. Arie, J. Thin Solid Films 24, 307 (1974).
[Crossref]

Laser Focus (1)

D. A. B. Miller, Laser Focus 18 (4), 79 (1982).

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

W. Paul, Mater. Res. Bull. 5, 691 (1970).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Gavini, C. C. Y. Kwan, Phys. Rev. B 5, 3138 (1972).
[Crossref]

H. W. Verleur, A. S. Barker, C. N. Berlund, Phys. Rev. B 172, 788 (1968).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. M. Reyes, J. R. Marko, M. Sayer, Solid State Commun. 13, 1953 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sov Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

D. I. Bilenko, V. A. Lodgauz, E. I. Khasina, Sov Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 1040 (1989).

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

F. A. Chudnovskii, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 20, 999 (1976).

Other (4)

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light With Light (Academic, New York, 1985).

I. Balberg, W. R. Roach, in Proceedings of International Conference on Conduction in Low Mobility Materials (Taylor and Francis, London, 1971), p. 77.

R. Jin, L. Wang, R. W. Sprague, H. M. Gibbs, G. C. Gigioli, H. Kulkey, H. A. Macleod, N. Peyghambarian, G. R. Olbright, M. Warren, in Optical Bistability III, H. M. Gibbs, P. Mandel, N. Peyghambarian, S. D. Smith, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1985), p. 61.

See, for example, H. Huag, ed., Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1988), Chap. 12.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vanadium dioxide thin-film interference filter and experimental geometry. ND, neutral density; M's, mirrors; BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hysteresis exhibited by vanadium dioxide film on alumina substrate. The switching intensity is approximately 0.9 W/cm2 with a contrast ratio of ∼15:1. The probe intensity is 100 mW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical bistability showing the existence of two stable states, with reflection coefficients of Rsc = 0.02 and Rm = 0.18, when biased with a probe intensity of 0.9 W/cm2. The metastable state can last for at least 2 h without decay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Reference signal and (b) the modulated reflected probe beam when the pump beam is chopped, showing the transition from one state to the other, with a switching time of approximately 15 ms. Vanadium dioxide film on mica was used to measure the switching time.

Equations (3)

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I ( r ) I ( i ) = [ R + exp ( α d ) ] 2 2 R exp ( α d ) ( 1 cos δ ) [ 1 + R exp ( α d ) ] 2 2 R exp ( α d ) ( 1 cos δ ) ,
d = λ 4 n ,
α d = 1 2 ln R .

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