Abstract

Diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers were frequency stabilized by locking their frequency-doubled output to Doppler-free absorption lines of the 127I2 molecule. The successive two-sample deviation of the beat frequency between two independent iodine-stabilized lasers is less than 650 Hz, or 2.3 × 10−12 of the laser frequency, for averaging times between 24 and 80 s.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. L. Schumaker, Rep. no. 90-50 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1990); M. Sokolowski, J. Lesh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 810, 172 (1987).
  2. Specifications of the Lightwave Electronics Model 122 laser, Lightwave Electronics, 1161 San Antonio Road, Mountain View, Calif. 94043.
  3. S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode (Editions du CNRS, Paris, 1978).
  4. See, for example, M. Glaser, Metrologia 23, 45 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. V. Kruzhalov, V. A. Parfenov, L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu Petrun’kin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 111 (1985).
  6. P. Esherick, A. Owyoung, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 41 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Schiller, N. M. Sampas, R. L. Byer, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conferenceon Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 365.
  8. A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1121, 58 (1989).
  9. D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, C. N. Man, O. Cregut, G. Kerr, Opt. Lett. 14, 609 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, R. G. Norwood, P. F. Bordui, Opt. Lett. 16, 1856 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1966 (1981); J. L. Hall, L. Holberg, T. Baer, H. J. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. We subtracted a correction factor of 0.0056 cm−1 from the measurement of Ref. 3; see S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. L. Sheng, J. L. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

B. L. Schumaker, Rep. no. 90-50 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1990); M. Sokolowski, J. Lesh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 810, 172 (1987).

M. L. Sheng, J. L. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1121, 58 (1989).

D. Shoemaker, A. Brillet, C. N. Man, O. Cregut, G. Kerr, Opt. Lett. 14, 609 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

See, for example, M. Glaser, Metrologia 23, 45 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

S. V. Kruzhalov, V. A. Parfenov, L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu Petrun’kin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 111 (1985).

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1966 (1981); J. L. Hall, L. Holberg, T. Baer, H. J. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

We subtracted a correction factor of 0.0056 cm−1 from the measurement of Ref. 3; see S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1966 (1981); J. L. Hall, L. Holberg, T. Baer, H. J. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bordui, P. F.

Brillet, A.

Byer, R. L.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Jundt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, R. G. Norwood, P. F. Bordui, Opt. Lett. 16, 1856 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Schiller, N. M. Sampas, R. L. Byer, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conferenceon Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 365.

Cregut, O.

Day, T.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Esherick, P.

Fejer, M. M.

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867 (1985).
[CrossRef]

We subtracted a correction factor of 0.0056 cm−1 from the measurement of Ref. 3; see S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode (Editions du CNRS, Paris, 1978).

Glaser, M.

See, for example, M. Glaser, Metrologia 23, 45 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E. K.

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

M. L. Sheng, J. L. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

Kerr, G.

Kozlovsky, W. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kruzhalov, S. V.

S. V. Kruzhalov, V. A. Parfenov, L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu Petrun’kin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 111 (1985).

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1966 (1981); J. L. Hall, L. Holberg, T. Baer, H. J. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867 (1985).
[CrossRef]

We subtracted a correction factor of 0.0056 cm−1 from the measurement of Ref. 3; see S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode (Editions du CNRS, Paris, 1978).

Mak, A. A.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1121, 58 (1989).

Man, C. N.

Muravitsky, S. G.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1121, 58 (1989).

Nabors, C. D.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. G.

Orlov, O. A.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1121, 58 (1989).

Owyoung, A.

Pakhomov, L. N.

S. V. Kruzhalov, V. A. Parfenov, L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu Petrun’kin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 111 (1985).

Parfenov, V. A.

S. V. Kruzhalov, V. A. Parfenov, L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu Petrun’kin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 111 (1985).

Sampas, N. M.

S. Schiller, N. M. Sampas, R. L. Byer, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conferenceon Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 365.

Schiller, S.

S. Schiller, N. M. Sampas, R. L. Byer, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conferenceon Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 365.

Schumaker, B. L.

B. L. Schumaker, Rep. no. 90-50 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1990); M. Sokolowski, J. Lesh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 810, 172 (1987).

Sheng, M. L.

M. L. Sheng, J. L. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, D.

Ustyugov, V. I.

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1121, 58 (1989).

Yu Petrun’kin, V.

S. V. Kruzhalov, V. A. Parfenov, L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu Petrun’kin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 111 (1985).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Day, E. K. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Sheng, J. L. Hall, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

See, for example, M. Glaser, Metrologia 23, 45 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1966 (1981); J. L. Hall, L. Holberg, T. Baer, H. J. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

A. A. Mak, S. G. Muravitsky, O. A. Orlov, V. I. Ustyugov, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1121, 58 (1989).

Rep. no. 90-50 (1)

B. L. Schumaker, Rep. no. 90-50 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 1990); M. Sokolowski, J. Lesh, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 810, 172 (1987).

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

We subtracted a correction factor of 0.0056 cm−1 from the measurement of Ref. 3; see S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 14, 791 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. V. Kruzhalov, V. A. Parfenov, L. N. Pakhomov, V. Yu Petrun’kin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 111 (1985).

Other (3)

S. Schiller, N. M. Sampas, R. L. Byer, in Proceedings of the Tenth International Conferenceon Laser Spectroscopy, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 365.

Specifications of the Lightwave Electronics Model 122 laser, Lightwave Electronics, 1161 San Antonio Road, Mountain View, Calif. 94043.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode (Editions du CNRS, Paris, 1978).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for locking the lasers to the Doppler-free transition of iodine. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; EOM, electro-optic modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FM saturated absorption spectrum of the 18 788.3-cm−1 line of 127I2. The center lines are weaker owing to the Doppler envelope. The frequency spacings between the lines were determined by locking one system to the lowest-frequency hyperfine transition and locking the second system each time to a different transition. The beat frequency was measured by taking the average of one hundred 4-s measurements of the HP 5371A. The lines at 285.8, 701.4, and 729.7 MHz each contain two unresolved hyperfine transitions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Root Allan variance of the beat note between two locked lasers and two free-running lasers for M = 100 and ν = 281.63 THz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of beat-note frequency as a function of time. In each case 460 successive 4-s measurements of the frequency were made. The inset shows an expanded view of the beat frequency between the iodine-stabilized lasers over the last 15 min of the measurement.

Equations (1)

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σ 2 ( τ ) = 1 2 ν 2 ( M - 1 ) i = 1 M - 1 ( y i + 1 - y i ) 2 ,

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