Abstract

We report trio upconversion laser action in Er:LiYF4 with excitation at 1.55 μm resulting in cw emission at 0.55 μm to a temperature of 95 K and contrast its performance with earlier green erbium upconversion lasers.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Haase, J. Qiu, J. DePuydt, H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991); H. Jeon, J. Ding, W. Patterson, A. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3619 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Goldberg, M. K. Chun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 218 (1989); U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 12, 57 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); N. Bloembergen, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483 (1970); A. Feisst, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 168 (1989).J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 262 (1989).
  6. A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977 (1987); R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988); D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989); R. A. McFarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Opt. Lett. 15, 848 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1182(1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. E. Castleberry, A. Linz, Appl. Opt. 14, 2056 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 12.
  12. S. M. Kulpa, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36, 1317 (1975)
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Xie, S. C. Rand, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CFE4.
  14. S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Haase, J. Qiu, J. DePuydt, H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991); H. Jeon, J. Ding, W. Patterson, A. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3619 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1182(1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Opt. Lett. 15, 848 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, M. K. Chun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 218 (1989); U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 12, 57 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 168 (1989).J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 262 (1989).

1987 (1)

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977 (1987); R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988); D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989); R. A. McFarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

S. M. Kulpa, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36, 1317 (1975)
[CrossRef]

D. E. Castleberry, A. Linz, Appl. Opt. 14, 2056 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); N. Bloembergen, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483 (1970); A. Feisst, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 168 (1989).J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 262 (1989).

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); N. Bloembergen, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483 (1970); A. Feisst, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); N. Bloembergen, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483 (1970); A. Feisst, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Case, W. E.

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Castleberry, D. E.

Chang, D. B.

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.

M. Haase, J. Qiu, J. DePuydt, H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991); H. Jeon, J. Ding, W. Patterson, A. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3619 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chun, M. K.

L. Goldberg, M. K. Chun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 218 (1989); U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 12, 57 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DePuydt, J.

M. Haase, J. Qiu, J. DePuydt, H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991); H. Jeon, J. Ding, W. Patterson, A. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3619 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); N. Bloembergen, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483 (1970); A. Feisst, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, M. K. Chun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 218 (1989); U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 12, 57 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Haase, M.

M. Haase, J. Qiu, J. DePuydt, H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991); H. Jeon, J. Ding, W. Patterson, A. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3619 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M. E.

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kueny, A. W.

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kulpa, S. M.

S. M. Kulpa, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36, 1317 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977 (1987); R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988); D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989); R. A. McFarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linz, A.

Macfarlane, R. M.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977 (1987); R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988); D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989); R. A. McFarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 168 (1989).J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 262 (1989).

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); N. Bloembergen, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483 (1970); A. Feisst, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 168 (1989).J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 262 (1989).

Pollack, S. A.

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

M. Haase, J. Qiu, J. DePuydt, H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991); H. Jeon, J. Ding, W. Patterson, A. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3619 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Opt. Lett. 15, 848 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1182(1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CFE4.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 12.

Silversmith, A. J.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977 (1987); R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988); D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989); R. A. McFarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, P.

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Opt. Lett. 15, 848 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1182(1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CFE4.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

S. A. Pollack, D. B. Chang, M. Birnbaum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 869 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1182(1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Haase, J. Qiu, J. DePuydt, H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991); H. Jeon, J. Ding, W. Patterson, A. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. Gunshor, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3619 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg, M. K. Chun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 218 (1989); U. Österberg, W. Margulis, Opt. Lett. 12, 57 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Johnson, H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, R. M. Macfarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977 (1987); R. M. Macfarlane, F. Tong, A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1300 (1988); D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989); R. A. McFarlane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Koch, A. W. Kueny, W. E. Case, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1083 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 168 (1989).J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 26, 262 (1989).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

S. M. Kulpa, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 36, 1317 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962); N. Bloembergen, A. J. Sievers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 483 (1970); A. Feisst, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Xie, S. C. Rand, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 12 of 1992 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CFE4.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 12.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Temporal evolution of 0.551-μm fluorescence intensity after excitation with an acousto-optically tailored 100-μs infrared pulse (inverted upper trace) of peak intensity 2 kW/cm2. The inset shows the evolution of pair-excited 0.98-μm fluorescence from the 4I11/2 state under identical conditions. (b) Dependence of upconversion fluorescence intensity on incident intensity below 0.2 W/cm2. The solid curve shows the power law with a best-fit slope of 2.8 ± 0.1. The inset shows the schematic of the 4I13/2 trio process in erbium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Laser output (0.5440 μm) versus input power at 9 K. (b) Output power versus output mirror reflectivity at a fixed pump power of 120 mW focused to a spot of radius 18 μm in the gain medium. The solid curve is a least-squares fit to the analytic output power formula.11

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation spectrum of upconversion laser action in Er:LiYF4 at 77 K and the erbium absorption spectrum(inverted curve). The absorptive transition from the lowest ground state to the lowest level of the first excited state corresponds to the line at λ = 1.530 μm.

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