Abstract

An optical winner-take-all spatial light modulator has been implemented with very-large-scale integrated-circuit/liquid-crystal device technology. One-dimensional arrays varying in size from 2 to 64 units and a 32 × 32 unit two-dimensional array have been fabricated and have demonstrated winner-take-all behavior. These devices have potential uses in optical implementations of correlators, associative memories, and unsupervised learning systems.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. A. Athale, H. H. Szu, C. B. Friedlander, Opt. Lett. 11, 482 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Rumelhart, D. Zipser, Cognitive Sci. 9, 75 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Grossberg, Cognitive Sci. 11, 23 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. 133, 77 (1986).
  5. M. A. Handschy, T. J. Drabik, L. K. Cotter, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1291, 158 (1990).
  6. D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 16, 967 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Lazzaro, S. Ryckebusch, M. A. Mahowald, C. A. Mead, in Advancesin Neural Information Processing Systems 1, D. Touretzky, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1989), p. 703.
  8. K. H. Wagner, R. E. Feinleib, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 882, 162 (1988).
  9. D. Psaltis, D. Brady, X-G. Gu, S. Lin, Nature 343, 325 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1150, 46 (1989).

1991 (2)

D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 16, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. A. Handschy, T. J. Drabik, L. K. Cotter, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1291, 158 (1990).

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, X-G. Gu, S. Lin, Nature 343, 325 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1150, 46 (1989).

1988 (1)

K. H. Wagner, R. E. Feinleib, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 882, 162 (1988).

1987 (1)

S. Grossberg, Cognitive Sci. 11, 23 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. 133, 77 (1986).

R. A. Athale, H. H. Szu, C. B. Friedlander, Opt. Lett. 11, 482 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

D. Rumelhart, D. Zipser, Cognitive Sci. 9, 75 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Andreou, A.

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

Boahen, K.

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D.

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, X-G. Gu, S. Lin, Nature 343, 325 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotter, L. K.

M. A. Handschy, T. J. Drabik, L. K. Cotter, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1291, 158 (1990).

Drabik, T. J.

M. A. Handschy, T. J. Drabik, L. K. Cotter, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1291, 158 (1990).

Feinleib, R. E.

K. H. Wagner, R. E. Feinleib, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 882, 162 (1988).

Friedlander, C. B.

Gaalema, S. D.

M. A. Handschy, T. J. Drabik, L. K. Cotter, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1291, 158 (1990).

Grossberg, S.

S. Grossberg, Cognitive Sci. 11, 23 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X-G.

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, X-G. Gu, S. Lin, Nature 343, 325 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Handschy, M. A.

M. A. Handschy, T. J. Drabik, L. K. Cotter, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1291, 158 (1990).

Jared, D. A.

D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 16, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1150, 46 (1989).

Jenkins, R.

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. M.

D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Opt. Lett. 16, 967 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1150, 46 (1989).

Lazzaro, J.

J. Lazzaro, S. Ryckebusch, M. A. Mahowald, C. A. Mead, in Advancesin Neural Information Processing Systems 1, D. Touretzky, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1989), p. 703.

Lin, S.

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, X-G. Gu, S. Lin, Nature 343, 325 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahowald, M. A.

J. Lazzaro, S. Ryckebusch, M. A. Mahowald, C. A. Mead, in Advancesin Neural Information Processing Systems 1, D. Touretzky, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1989), p. 703.

Mead, C. A.

J. Lazzaro, S. Ryckebusch, M. A. Mahowald, C. A. Mead, in Advancesin Neural Information Processing Systems 1, D. Touretzky, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1989), p. 703.

Pavasovic, A.

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pouliquen, P.

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, X-G. Gu, S. Lin, Nature 343, 325 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rumelhart, D.

D. Rumelhart, D. Zipser, Cognitive Sci. 9, 75 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ryckebusch, S.

J. Lazzaro, S. Ryckebusch, M. A. Mahowald, C. A. Mead, in Advancesin Neural Information Processing Systems 1, D. Touretzky, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1989), p. 703.

Sillitto, R. M.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. 133, 77 (1986).

Strohbehn, K.

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Szu, H. H.

Underwood, I.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. 133, 77 (1986).

Vass, D. G.

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. 133, 77 (1986).

Wagner, K. H.

K. H. Wagner, R. E. Feinleib, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 882, 162 (1988).

Zipser, D.

D. Rumelhart, D. Zipser, Cognitive Sci. 9, 75 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cognitive Sci. (2)

D. Rumelhart, D. Zipser, Cognitive Sci. 9, 75 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Grossberg, Cognitive Sci. 11, 23 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Neural Networks (1)

A. Andreou, K. Boahen, P. Pouliquen, A. Pavasovic, R. Jenkins, K. Strohbehn, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks 2, 205 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. (1)

I. Underwood, D. G. Vass, R. M. Sillitto, Inst. Electr. Eng. Proc. 133, 77 (1986).

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, D. Brady, X-G. Gu, S. Lin, Nature 343, 325 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (3)

K. H. Wagner, R. E. Feinleib, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 882, 162 (1988).

M. A. Handschy, T. J. Drabik, L. K. Cotter, S. D. Gaalema, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1291, 158 (1990).

D. A. Jared, K. M. Johnson, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1150, 46 (1989).

Other (1)

J. Lazzaro, S. Ryckebusch, M. A. Mahowald, C. A. Mead, in Advancesin Neural Information Processing Systems 1, D. Touretzky, ed. (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, Calif., 1989), p. 703.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional diagram of two units of a VLSI/LC WTA device. ITO, indium tin oxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photomicrographs of a one-dimensional array showing WTA behavior: (a) array under uniform illumination, (b) array with additional illumination on the fifth unit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photomicrograph of a two-dimensional WTA array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of one WTA unit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modulator electrode voltage as the ratio of input intensity is varied on two units of an eight-unit array.

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