Abstract

We have observed a large variation with laser polarization in the amount of laser light resonantly backscattered from the Earth’s mesospheric sodium layer located at a 90-km altitude. This variation is evidence of optical pumping of mesospheric sodium atoms.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Opt. Eng. 30, 13 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29 (1985).
  5. L. A. Thompson, C. S. Gardner, Nature 328, 229 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Humphreys, C. A. Primmerman, L. C. Bradley, J. Hermann, Opt. Lett. 16, 1367 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. H. Jeys, Lincoln Laboratory J. 4, 133 (1991).
  8. T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.
  9. M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.
  10. W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. C. Balling, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, D. W. Goodwin, ed. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. 3, p. 137.
  12. W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. G. Ballard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1473 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (3)

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Opt. Eng. 30, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Jeys, Lincoln Laboratory J. 4, 133 (1991).

R. A. Humphreys, C. A. Primmerman, L. C. Bradley, J. Hermann, Opt. Lett. 16, 1367 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

L. A. Thompson, C. S. Gardner, Nature 328, 229 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29 (1985).

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. G. Ballard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1473 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, S. G.

S. G. Ballard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1473 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Balling, L. C.

L. C. Balling, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, D. W. Goodwin, ed. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. 3, p. 137.

Bills, R. E.

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Opt. Eng. 30, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, L. C.

Broermann, W.

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cleis, R. A.

M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.

Dreves, W.

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fick, D.

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29 (1985).

Fricke, K. H.

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.

Gardner, C. S.

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Opt. Eng. 30, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Thompson, C. S. Gardner, Nature 328, 229 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, R. M.

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.

Hermann, J.

Hotaling, T. C.

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.

Humphreys, R. A.

Jelonek, M. P.

M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.

Jeys, T. H.

T. H. Jeys, Lincoln Laboratory J. 4, 133 (1991).

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.

Kamke, W.

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, M. H.

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kibblewhite, E.

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.

Korn, J.

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29 (1985).

Lange, W. J.

M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.

McClelland, J. J.

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Primmerman, C. A.

Ruane, R. E.

M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.

Sechrist, C. F.

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Segal, A. C.

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Slavin, A. C.

M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.

Thompson, L. A.

L. A. Thompson, C. S. Gardner, Nature 328, 229 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Voelz, D. G.

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

von Zahn, U.

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wall, K. F.

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29 (1985).

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

K. H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 47, 499 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

C. S. Gardner, D. G. Voelz, C. F. Sechrist, A. C. Segal, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13659 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln Laboratory J. (1)

T. H. Jeys, Lincoln Laboratory J. 4, 133 (1991).

Nature (1)

L. A. Thompson, C. S. Gardner, Nature 328, 229 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. E. Bills, C. S. Gardner, Opt. Eng. 30, 13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. J. McClelland, M. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. A 31, 3704 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

W. Happer, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. G. Ballard, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 54, 1473 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (1)

W. Dreves, W. Kamke, W. Broermann, D. Fick, Z. Phys. A 303, 203 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. C. Balling, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, D. W. Goodwin, ed. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol. 3, p. 137.

T. H. Jeys, R. M. Heinrichs, K. F. Wall, J. Korn, T. C. Hotaling, E. Kibblewhite, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), paper PD41.

M. P. Jelonek, R. Q. Fugate, W. J. Lange, A. C. Slavin, R. E. Ruane, R. A. Cleis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), paper CThK2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Energy-level diagram for the sodium D2 transition. The 3 2S1/2 ground-state energy levels, with total atomic angular momentum quantum numbers F of 1 and 2, are separated by 1.77 GHz. The 3 2P3/2 excited-state energy levels associated with total angular momentum quantum numbers F of 0, 1, 2, and 3 are separated by 16, 35, and 60 MHz, respectively. (b) Absorption profile of the D2 transition versus frequency for mesospheric sodium at a temperature of 200 K. Transitions from the F = 1 and 2 ground states are well resolved in the absorption profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Backscattered signal as a function of the time, after the laser pulse is transmitted into the atmosphere for both linear and circular laser polarizations. Each data set was integrated for 2 min (1200 laser pulses of 250-mJ energy each). The signal at times less than 500 μs corresponds to Rayleigh scattering. The overlapping peaks at 630 μs correspond to scattering from the mesospheric sodium layer at ≈90-km altitude. Here circular laser polarization resulted in 50% more total signal than did linear polarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Azimuthally averaged fluorescence signal (after background subtraction) from a CCD camera as a function of the laser polarization and radial distance from the center of the fluorescence images. Here circular laser polarization resulted in 180% more signal at the center of the image than did linear laser polarization.

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