Abstract

We describe the laser cooling of Ca+ ions in a rf ion trap and the measurement of its 3 2D5/2 state lifetime. The ions are cooled to below 1 K by radiation from a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser and a laser diode. The radiative lifetime is measured by observing the change in fluorescence when the ions, which are optically pumped to the metastable state, return to the cooling cycle. The lifetime of the 3 2D5/2 state is measured to be 0.77 ± 0.07 s.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, D. J. Wineland, Science 237, 612 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, Opt. Lett. 8, 73 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, Appl. Phys. B 50, 13 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Madej, J. D. Sankey, Opt. Lett. 15, 634 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Gallanger, Phys. Rev. 157, 124 (1967).
  8. S. Urabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 417 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, S. Urabe, Opt. Lett. 17, 46 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Janik, W. Nagourney, H. Dehmelt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1251 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. G. DeVoe, J. Hoffnagle, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4632 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Madej, J. D. Sankey, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2621 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Werth, in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. DeMarchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 293.
  15. R. E. Silverans, L. Vermeeren, R. Neugart, P. Lievens, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Z. Phys. D 18, 351 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S. Urabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 417 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, S. Urabe, Opt. Lett. 17, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. E. Silverans, L. Vermeeren, R. Neugart, P. Lievens, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Z. Phys. D 18, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

A. A. Madej, J. D. Sankey, Opt. Lett. 15, 634 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Madej, J. D. Sankey, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, Appl. Phys. B 50, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. G. DeVoe, J. Hoffnagle, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, D. J. Wineland, Science 237, 612 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

1978 (2)

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. Gallanger, Phys. Rev. 157, 124 (1967).

Barwood, G. P.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, Appl. Phys. B 50, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A. S.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, Appl. Phys. B 50, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, D. J. Wineland, Science 237, 612 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, Opt. Lett. 8, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe, J. Hoffnagle, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dehmelt, H.

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Janik, W. Nagourney, H. Dehmelt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1251 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. G. DeVoe, J. Hoffnagle, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gallanger, A.

A. Gallanger, Phys. Rev. 157, 124 (1967).

Gill, P.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, Appl. Phys. B 50, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

S. Urabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 417 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, S. Urabe, Opt. Lett. 17, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmati, H.

Hoffnagle, J.

R. G. DeVoe, J. Hoffnagle, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hohenstatt, M.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Imajo, H.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, S. Urabe, Opt. Lett. 17, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Urabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 417 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, D. J. Wineland, Science 237, 612 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, Opt. Lett. 8, 73 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janik, G.

Klein, H. A.

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, Appl. Phys. B 50, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lievens, P.

R. E. Silverans, L. Vermeeren, R. Neugart, P. Lievens, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Z. Phys. D 18, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Madej, A. A.

Nagourney, W.

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Janik, W. Nagourney, H. Dehmelt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1251 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Neugart, R.

R. E. Silverans, L. Vermeeren, R. Neugart, P. Lievens, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Z. Phys. D 18, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neuhauser, W.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, J.

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sankey, J. D.

Silverans, R. E.

R. E. Silverans, L. Vermeeren, R. Neugart, P. Lievens, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Z. Phys. D 18, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, S.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, S. Urabe, Opt. Lett. 17, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Urabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 417 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vermeeren, L.

R. E. Silverans, L. Vermeeren, R. Neugart, P. Lievens, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Z. Phys. D 18, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walls, F. L.

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, S. Urabe, Opt. Lett. 17, 46 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Urabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 417 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Werth, G.

G. Werth, in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. DeMarchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 293.

Wineland, D. J.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, D. J. Wineland, Science 237, 612 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. A. Klein, A. S. Bell, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, Appl. Phys. B 50, 13 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Urabe, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, J. Mod. Opt. 39, 417 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Gallanger, Phys. Rev. 157, 124 (1967).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. G. DeVoe, J. Hoffnagle, R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 39, 4632 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, J. D. Sankey, Phys. Rev. A 41, 2621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. Nagourney, J. Sandberg, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2797 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland, R. E. Drullinger, F. L. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, D. J. Wineland, Science 237, 612 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. D (1)

R. E. Silverans, L. Vermeeren, R. Neugart, P. Lievens, and the ISOLDE Collaboration, Z. Phys. D 18, 351 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Werth, in Frequency Standards and Metrology, A. DeMarchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p. 293.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram for Ca+.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV fluorescence of laser-cooled Ca ions obtained by (a) scanning the UV (397-nm) frequency and (b) scanning the IR (866-nm) frequency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of the radiative lifetime of the 3 2D5/2 state in Ca+ by using (a) the laser diode (850 nm) and (c) the hollow cathode lamp as an optical pumping source. (b) Shows observation of the UV fluorescence recovery time after the Ca+ ions are all pumped to the 3 2D3/2 state by blocking the IR (866-nm) light and then reirradiated.

Equations (2)

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Δ ν IR = Γ [ 1 + 3 ( 1 + κ ) Ω IR 2 / Γ 2 + κ ( 4 Δ UV 2 / Γ 2 + 1 ) Ω IR 2 / Ω UV 2 ] 1 / 2 / 2 π ,
T = 0.77 ± 0.07 s .

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