Abstract

A new femtosecond time-resolved interferometer was developed that utilizes interference fringes in the frequency domain to obtain simultaneously difference phase spectra (DPS) and difference transmission spectra with a multichannel spectrometer. For the first time to our knowledge, transient oscillations were observed in DPS and the spectral shift of a probe pulse was time resolved together with the rise in DPS, which is clear evidence for induced phase modulation in absorptive materials.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. We limit discussion to time-resolved interferometry and omit optical heterodyne/polarization spectroscopy. See, for example, D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10395 (1991), and references therein. (See also Ref. 12 below and references therein.)
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Cotter, C. N. Ironside, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, Opt. Lett. 14, 317 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, M. O’Neill, T. J. Cullen, C. N. Ironside, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 675 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989); C. de C. Chamon, C. K. Sun, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 533 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Minoshima, M. Taiji, T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1683 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.
  9. See, for example, A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  10. C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 351 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, “Frequency-domain interferometry with femtosecond chirped continuum pulses,” submitted to Opt. Lett.
    [PubMed]

1991

We limit discussion to time-resolved interferometry and omit optical heterodyne/polarization spectroscopy. See, for example, D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10395 (1991), and references therein. (See also Ref. 12 below and references therein.)
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, M. Taiji, T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1683 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. Cotter, C. N. Ironside, B. J. Ainslie, H. P. Girdlestone, Opt. Lett. 14, 317 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Finlayson, W. C. Banyai, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, M. O’Neill, T. J. Cullen, C. N. Ironside, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 675 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989); C. de C. Chamon, C. K. Sun, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, K. K.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989); C. de C. Chamon, C. K. Sun, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Banyai, W. C.

Becker, P. C.

C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Cruz, C. H.

C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, R. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cina, J. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

Cullen, T. J.

Du, M.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, N.

Fleming, G. R.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989); C. de C. Chamon, C. K. Sun, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Girdlestone, H. P.

Gordon, J. P.

C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Halbout, J.-M.

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989); C. de C. Chamon, C. K. Sun, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. P.

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hosoda, M.

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Ironside, C. N.

Kobayashi, T.

K. Minoshima, M. Taiji, T. Kobayashi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1683 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, “Frequency-domain interferometry with femtosecond chirped continuum pulses,” submitted to Opt. Lett.
[PubMed]

Koma, A.

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

LaGasse, M. J.

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989); C. de C. Chamon, C. K. Sun, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lotshaw, W. T.

We limit discussion to time-resolved interferometry and omit optical heterodyne/polarization spectroscopy. See, for example, D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10395 (1991), and references therein. (See also Ref. 12 below and references therein.)
[CrossRef]

Matro, A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McMorrow, D.

We limit discussion to time-resolved interferometry and omit optical heterodyne/polarization spectroscopy. See, for example, D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10395 (1991), and references therein. (See also Ref. 12 below and references therein.)
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

O’Neill, M.

Rice, S. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Rochin, V.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ruggiero, A. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Scherer, N. F.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

Shank, C. V.

C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Tada, H.

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Taiji, M.

Tang, C. L.

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Terasaki, A.

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, “Frequency-domain interferometry with femtosecond chirped continuum pulses,” submitted to Opt. Lett.
[PubMed]

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Tokunaga, E.

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, “Frequency-domain interferometry with femtosecond chirped continuum pulses,” submitted to Opt. Lett.
[PubMed]

Wada, T.

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Yamada, A.

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

Yariv, A.

See, for example, A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J.-M. Halbout, C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989); C. de C. Chamon, C. K. Sun, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. H. Brito-Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, P. P. Ho, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 351 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

T. Hattori, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, T. Wada, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 937 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

We limit discussion to time-resolved interferometry and omit optical heterodyne/polarization spectroscopy. See, for example, D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10395 (1991), and references therein. (See also Ref. 12 below and references therein.)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

A. Terasaki, M. Hosoda, T. Wada, H. Tada, A. Koma, A. Yamada, H. Sasabe, A. F. Garito, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond spectroscopy of vanadyl phthalocya-nines in various molecular arrangements,” submitted to J. Phys. Chem.

See, for example, A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1988).

E. Tokunaga, A. Terasaki, T. Kobayashi, “Frequency-domain interferometry with femtosecond chirped continuum pulses,” submitted to Opt. Lett.
[PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of the frequency-domain interferometer and the time sequence of the pump (ex.), probe (pr.), and reference (ref.) pulses with separation τ and T.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signals for the R63 filter obtained by the frequency-domain interferometer at τ = 20 fs and T = 410 fs. Upper panel: directly observed interference spectra with excitation (curve a) and without excitation (curve b); the difference spectrum (curve c) is also shown. Lower panel: curves a, b, and c have been normalized by the transmitted probe spectrum to obtain a′, b′, and c′, respectively. The open circles (DPS) are calculated from the fringe-valley shifts between curves a′ and b′.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmitted probe spectra with excitation (curve a) and without excitation (curve b) and the DTS (curve c) and the DPS (open circles) for the R63 filter.

Equations (9)

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E pr ( t ) = E ( t ) exp ( i ω 0 t ) , E ref ( t ) = E ( t - T ) exp [ i ω 0 ( t - T ) ] ,
F [ E pr ( t ) + E ref ( t ) ] = E ( ω - ω 0 ) [ 1 + exp ( - i ω T ) ] ,
F [ E pr ( t ) + E ref ( t ) ] 2 = E ( ω - ω 0 ) 2 ( 2 + 2 cos ω T ) ,
E pr ( t ) = 1 2 π d ω E ( ω - ω 0 ) × exp { i ω [ t - n ( ω ) x / c + i k ( ω ) x / c ] } ,
E pr ( ω ) = F [ E pr ( τ ) ] = E ( ω - ω 0 ) exp { [ - i n ( ω ) - k ( ω ) ] ω x / c } .
E pr ( ω , τ ) = F [ E pr ( t , τ ) ] = E pr ( ω ) exp { [ - i Δ n ( ω , τ ) - Δ k ( ω , τ ) ] ω x / c } .
E pr ( ω ) + E ref ( ω ) 2 = E pr ( ω ) 2 ( 2 + 2 cos ω T ) ,
E pr ( ω , t ) + E ref ( ω ) 2 = E pr ( ω ) 2 { 1 + exp [ - 2 Δ k ( ω , τ ) ω x / c ] + 2 exp [ - Δ k ( ω , τ ) ω x / c ] × cos ω [ T - Δ n ( ω , τ ) x / c ] } .
δ Δ Φ - [ exp ( - Δ k ) ± 1 ] d Δ k / d ω T + d Δ Φ / d ω ,

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