Abstract

We survey the dynamics of the photorefractive effect in a methyl methacrylate copolymer with the nonlinear chromophore p-nitroaniline in a pendant side group doped with a charge-transport agent, diethylaminobenz-aldehyde diphenylhydrazone, a material that represents a new class of photorefractive polymer. The grating growth times are several orders of magnitude smaller than that for the previous epoxy-based photorefractive polymers and fall below 1 s at the highest intensities used. Grating competition and revelation effects suggest that charge carriers other than photogenerated holes are mobile. A sublinear dependence of growth rate on writing intensity implies that shallow traps may also be present.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).
  3. J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, in Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics, R. A. Hann, D. Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), p. 295.
  6. J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).
  7. H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).
  8. M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. A. Walsh, W. E. Moerner, “Two-beam coupling measurements of grating phase in a photorefractive polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
  10. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
  11. S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839(1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Pope, C. E. Swenberg, Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1982), p. 748.
  14. J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

1991 (2)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

1990 (2)

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839(1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Barker, R. C.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bashaw, M. C.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bhatti, A. M.

A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, in Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics, R. A. Hann, D. Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), p. 295.

Bjorklund, G. C.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Burland, D. M.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Dube, R. R.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839(1984).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Feinberg, J.

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839(1984).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A. C.

A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, in Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics, R. A. Hann, D. Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), p. 295.

Günter, P.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Ma, T.-P.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mahgerefteh, D.

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matray, T. J.

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

C. A. Walsh, W. E. Moerner, “Two-beam coupling measurements of grating phase in a photorefractive polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Mroczkowski, S.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, R. A.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Pautmeier, L. Th.

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

Pohl, D. W.

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

Pope, M.

M. Pope, C. E. Swenberg, Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1982), p. 748.

Rytz, D.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Silence, S. M.

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

Swenberg, C. E.

M. Pope, C. E. Swenberg, Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1982), p. 748.

Twieg, R. J.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Walsh, C.

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Walsh, C. A.

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

C. A. Walsh, W. E. Moerner, “Two-beam coupling measurements of grating phase in a photorefractive polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Wechsler, B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, B. Wechsler, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. Feinberg, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 839(1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, R. R. Dube, Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mahgerefteh, J. Feinberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2195 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41(10), 46 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

W. E. Moerner, C. Walsh, J. C. Scott, S. Ducharme, D. M. Burland, G. C. Bjorklund, R. J. Twieg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1560, 278 (1991).

Other (6)

C. A. Walsh, W. E. Moerner, “Two-beam coupling measurements of grating phase in a photorefractive polymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

A. C. Griffin, A. M. Bhatti, in Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics, R. A. Hann, D. Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989), p. 295.

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, R. J. Twieg, “Photoconductivity of photorefractive polymers,” Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (to be published).

H. J. Eichler, P. Günter, D. W. Pohl, Laser-Induced Dynamic Gratings, Vol. 50 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986).

M. Pope, C. E. Swenberg, Electronic Processes in Organic Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1982), p. 748.

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency of gratings written with 647-nm light (instrument response 100 ms). (a) Grating formation with write beams on during the first 60 s and E = 0, 180 s < t < 210 s. (b) Writing time of 600 s with (upper curve) and without (lower curve) an applied electric field.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photorefractive grating growth rate as a function of write-beam intensity for 647 nm (squares) and 568 nm (filled circles) in one sample and 568 nm (open circles) in a second sample. The straight lines are power-law fits as described in the text. The inset shows the initial growth of η at 568 nm (instrument response 10 ms) with a write intensity of 1.30 W/cm2, which has τ = 0.94 s.

Equations (1)

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η ( t ) ~ { E sc [ 1 - exp ( - t / τ ) ] } 2 ,

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