Abstract

We have observed nonlinear reflection and transmission at a dielectric–carbon microparticle suspension interface. Nonlinear reflectivities of as much as 90% were measured using frequency-doubled, 5-ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. This result is attributed to laser-induced cavitation and the resulting refractive-index change in the carbon suspension that leads to total internal reflection at the interface. The fraction of energy that is not switched by total internal reflection undergoes additional nonlinear attenuation by nonlinear scattering.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 24, 144 (1976).
  2. A. E. Kaplan, Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).
  3. S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 645 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 7, 57 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  7. I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. W. Smith, J. P. Hermann, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 846 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. J. Tomlinson, J. P. Gordon, P. W. Smith, A. E. Kaplan, Appl. Opt. 21, 2041 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, M. Mohebi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1626, 289 (1992).
  12. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 13, 886 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).
  14. G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 376 (1990).
  15. K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 91 (1989).
  16. K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 350 (1990).

1992 (1)

R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, M. Mohebi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1626, 289 (1992).

1991 (1)

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 376 (1990).

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 350 (1990).

1989 (4)

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 91 (1989).

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1984 (1)

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (3)

1979 (1)

P. W. Smith, J. P. Hermann, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 846 (1979).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. E. Kaplan, Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).

1976 (1)

A. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 24, 144 (1976).

Cipparrone, G.

Clark, W. M.

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 376 (1990).

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).

De Nicola, S.

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

Euliss, G. W.

R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, M. Mohebi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1626, 289 (1992).

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

Hermann, J. P.

P. W. Smith, J. P. Hermann, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 846 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, A. E.

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 7, 57 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, J. P. Gordon, P. W. Smith, A. E. Kaplan, Appl. Opt. 21, 2041 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Kaplan, Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).

A. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 24, 144 (1976).

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
[Crossref]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, C. Umeton, I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 13, 886 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 645 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lawson, C. M.

R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, M. Mohebi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1626, 289 (1992).

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lindquist, R. G.

I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
[Crossref]

Maloney, P. J.

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 7, 57 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Smith, J. P. Hermann, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 846 (1979).
[Crossref]

Mansfield, R.

I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mansour, K.

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 350 (1990).

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 91 (1989).

Martellucci, S.

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

Michael, R. R.

R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, M. Mohebi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1626, 289 (1992).

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
[Crossref]

Miller, M. J.

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).

Mohebi, M.

R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, M. Mohebi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1626, 289 (1992).

Mormile, P.

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pierattini, G.

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

Quartieri, J.

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

Salamo, G. J.

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).

Sharp, E. J.

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 376 (1990).

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).

Simoni, F.

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[Crossref]

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 7, 57 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, J. P. Gordon, P. W. Smith, A. E. Kaplan, Appl. Opt. 21, 2041 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Smith, J. P. Hermann, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 846 (1979).
[Crossref]

Soileau, M. J.

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 350 (1990).

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 91 (1989).

Tomlinson, W. J.

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[Crossref]

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 7, 57 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, J. P. Gordon, P. W. Smith, A. E. Kaplan, Appl. Opt. 21, 2041 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Smith, J. P. Hermann, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 846 (1979).
[Crossref]

Umeton, C.

Van Stryland, E. W.

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 350 (1990).

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 91 (1989).

Wood, G. L.

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 376 (1990).

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).

Zhou, P.

I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. De Nicola, A. E. Kaplan, S. Martellucci, P. Mormile, G. Pierattini, J. Quartieri, Appl. Phys. B 49, 441 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. C. Khoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 645 (1982).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. W. Smith, J. P. Hermann, W. J. Tomlinson, P. J. Maloney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 846 (1979).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 30 (1984).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, P. Zhou, R. R. Michael, R. G. Lindquist, R. Mansfield, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1755 (1989).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

A. E. Kaplan, JETP Lett. 24, 144 (1976).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 154 (1989).

G. L. Wood, W. M. Clark, E. J. Sharp, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 376 (1990).

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1105, 91 (1989).

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1307, 350 (1990).

R. R. Michael, C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, M. Mohebi, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1626, 289 (1992).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. E. Kaplan, Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 896 (1977).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Detailed view of the cavitation/TIR sample and the transmission to the TIR switching process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup used to investigate the reflection and transmission characteristics of the dielectric–carbon suspension interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission through the cell as a function of incident energy for low energies showing the linear transmission and the energy at which the transmission becomes nonlinear.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission as a function of the incident energy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TIR sample reflectivity for different carbon particle concentrations (i.e., linear absorption coefficients). As much as 90% of the incident energy can be removed by the cavitation-induced TIR switching process.

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